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Flashcards in Heart - Gross Deck (48):
1

Which division of the Mediastinum is the heart in?

Middle mediastinum

2

What are the 3 layers of the Heart wall?

1. Epicardium = superficial
2. Myocardium
3. Endocardium = Deep

3

What does the Ligamentum Arteriosum do?

Connects the left pulmonary artery & Arch of the aorta.

4

____ is a remnant of fetal ductus arteriousus.

Ligamentum Arteriosum

5

What is the blood flow through the body?

Body --> SVC, IVC, & Coronary Sinus --> R. Atrium --> R. Ventricle --> Pulmonary Trunk --> Pulmonary arteries --> Lungs --> Pulmonary veins --> L. Atrium --> L. Ventricle --> Aorta --> Body

6

What is are the 4 valves of the heart?

R. AV valve
Pulmonary Valve
Aortic Valve
L. AV valve

7

What is the septum of the heart?

Interventricular septum

8

What is are the 4 valves of the heart?

R. AV valve (Tricuspid)
Pulmonary (Semilunar)
Aortic (Semilunar) Valve
L. AV valve (Mitral bicuspid)

9

What is the function of the AV valves?

Allows blood flow from atria into ventricles and prevents blood flow back into atria when ventricles contract.

10

What is the function of Semilunar valves?

Allow blood out of ventricles into arteries when ventricles contract. Then doesn't allow back flow of blood back into ventricles when they relax.

11

What are the two types of valve problems?

1. incompetence (allows back flow of blood)
2. stenosis

12

_______ travels with Anterior IV artery in anterior IV sulcus.

Great Cardiac Vein

13

Where does the Great Cardiac Vein drain to?

Empties into the Cardiac sinus posteriorly

14

Anterior Cardiac Veins pass superficial to ______.

Right Coronary Artery

15

Where does the Anterior Cardiac Veins drain to?

Empties directly into right atrium.

16

What are the branches of the Right coronary Artery?

1. Right Marginal branch
2. Posterior IV artery (termination)
3. Ant. Right atrial branch
- Sinuatrial nodal branch

17

The left Coronary Artery immediately divides into _______ & ________.

1. Anterior Interventricular A.
- L. anterior descending A.
2. Circumflex A.
- L. marginal branch

18

T or F, Frequently one Coronary A. is dominant.

True, the dominant one gives off the Posterior IV A.

19

R. Coronary A. is dominant ___% of the time.

about 65% of the time

20

L. Coronary A. is dominant about ____% of the time.

about 15% of the time

21

Balanced arterial pattern occurs about ______% of the time.

20%

22

What is Coronary artery disease?

Occlusion of major coronary artery, usually due to antherosclerosis, leads to inadequate oxygenation of an area of myocardium and cell death.

23

What is a Myocardial infarct (MI)?

(heart attack) Occurs when perfusion to myocardium is insufficient tot meet the metabolic needs of the tissue.

24

What are the symptoms of a MI?

- Classic heaviness/ pressure
- Pain radiating to arm (left generally)

25

______ is commonly used for bypass grafts.

Great Saphenous vein

26

______ is commonly used for bypass grafts.

Great Saphenous vein
- harvested from ant./med. region of the thigh or leg.
*can be sutured into aorta & distal branch of Coronary A.

27

_____ & _____ may also be used for coronary bypass graft.

Int. thoracic A & Radial A.

28

T or F, Heart has the ability to maintain confection system without CNS innervation.

True

29

_____ does affect rate of heartbeat.

ANS

30

_________ increase heart rate.

Sympathetic innervation from T1-T5

31

_________ decreases heart rate.

Parasympathetic innervation from Vagus N.

32

______ & ______ both contribute to both superficial and deep cardiac plexuses of nerves.

SNS & PNS

33

_____ is the "pacemaker" of the heart.

Sinatrial (SA) node

34

What makes up the Conduction system of the heart?

SA node
AV node
AV bundle
AV bundle branches R & L

35

Damage to conduction system results _____.

Cardiac arrhymthmias

36

Damage to AV node will cause _______.

Heart block

37

_____ may be inserted to control the contractions.

Pacemaker

38

Where is pacemaker placed?

Placed in contact with endocardium of ventricular wall

39

Electrode terminal of pacemaker is firmly fixed to _______.

Trabeculae carneae

40

What attaches to the papillary muscles?

Chordae Tendoneae

41

What do the papillary muscles do?

Papillary muscles contract and tighten chordae tendineae preventing valve flaps from everting into atria.

42

Where is the Fossa ovalis?

In right atrium
*Used to be Foramen Ovale (embryological)

43

What are the 3 papillary muscles of the Right Ventricle?

Ant, post, and Septal papillary muscles
* (Ant. Is largest!)

44

What are the 3 cusps of the Right AV valve?

Ant.
Post.
Septal cusp

45

What is the roughened muscular walls of the ventricle?

Trabeculae Carne

46

What is the roughened muscular wall of the atrium?

Pectinate muscle

47

Where do coronary arteries originate from?

Aorta

48

Where is AV node located?

Just superior to opening of coronary sinus.