Heart, Internal structure, Chambers and valves, Surface anatomy Flashcards Preview

Medicine MD3001 cardiovascular system > Heart, Internal structure, Chambers and valves, Surface anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Heart, Internal structure, Chambers and valves, Surface anatomy Deck (35):
1

What forms the right border of the heart?

Right Atrium

2

Which vessels enter the right atrium?

SVC, IVC and the coronary sinuses

3

How does blood flow through the Right atrium?

through the Tricuspid valve anterior and medially

4

Describe the structure of the anterior wall of the Right atrium.

trabeculated with musculi pectinati and cristae terminalis
also formed of the auricle

5

What is the function of the musculi pectinati in the right atrium?

provide some power for atrial contraction

6

Describe the structure of the posterior wall of the right atrium.
What are the positions of the nodes?

-Smooth. Forms the intratrial septum.
-sino atrial node is close to the opening of the SVC
Atrio ventricular node lies on septum between coronary sinus and tricuspid valve

7

What surfaces of the heart does the Right ventricle from?

most of the sternocostal (anterior) surface
some of the diaphragmatic surface

8

What is the flow of blood into and out of the Right ventricle?

Blood flows forwards and medially through the tricuspid valve
outflow is superiorly and posteriorly through the pulmonary valve to the pulmonary trunk+arteries through a smooth infundibulum

9

Describe the structure of the Right ventricle wall.

Trabeculated with trabeculae carneae, 3 papillary muscles, septomarginal trabecula

10

What are the three papillary muscles of the right ventricle?
How are they attached?

-anterior, posterior, septal
-attached by chordae tendineae

11

what is the function of the trabeculae carneae in the right ventricle?

muscular ridges which give power of contraction

12

Which structure forms the base of the heart?

the left atrium

13

how many pulmonary veins flow into the Left atrium?

4

14

Describe the intratrial wall of the left atrium

smooth
slight depression equivalent to the fossa ovalis
long tubular auricle

15

How does the left ventricle differ from the right?
Why is this?

-Much thicker muscular wall than the right
-to deal with systemic pressure 70-120mmHg

16

Describe the flow of blood through the Left ventricle.

blood flows superiorly and posteriorly to the pulmonary valve and trunk

17

Describe the wall of the left ventricle

trabeculated with trabeculae carnea and 2 papillary muscles attached by chordae tendineae

18

Explain the functional importance of the cardiac skeleton.
Describe its position

-supports valves, myocardium and fibrous rings
- electrically separates the atria and the ventricles by separating atrial and ventricular muscle so there can be no electrical connection between the muscles

19

What is the only electrical connection between the atria and the ventricles?

Atrioventricular bundle of His

20

What causes valves to open and close?

Difference in blood pressure

21

Describe the structure of the tricuspid valve.

3 cusps attached to papillary muscles attached by chordae tendineae
cusps attach to fibrous ring

22

When in the cardiac cycle does the tricuspid valve open and close?

Closed during systole (ventricular contraction) hence preventing back flow of blood into the atrium.
Open during diastole (atrial contraction)

23

Describe the structure and location of the pulmonary valve.

3 watch pocket cusps
attached in the root of the pulmonary trunk

24

When in the cardiac cycle is the pulmonary valve open and closed?

the valve opens during systole, when the pressure in the ventricle is greater than in the pulmonary trunk
the valve is closed during diastole

25

What is the competence of the Mitral valve?

Active competence

26

How many cusps does the mitral valve have?
name them.

2
anterior and posterior

27

When is the mitral valve open in relation to the cardiac cycle?

open during diastole

28

Describe the structure of the aortic valve.
Give its location

-3 semi lunar cusps left, right and posterior
-apex of the aorta

29

State when coronary arteries fill in relation to the cardiac cycle

the aortic valve cusps are closed during diastole to prevent back flow of blood in to the ventricle. This is when the coronary sinuses fill hence filling the coronary arteries

30

Where are the coronary sinuses which fill the coronary arteries found?

The left and right cusps of the aortic valve, coronary cusps

31

What is valve incompetence?
How does it occur?

-Cusp eversion during systole and hence back flow of blood occurs
-during an MI if the heart tissue which supplying the papillary muscles of the valve dies then these muscles fail to function

32

What is the direction of flow of blood in the Tricuspid valve?
Where can you locate it?

-anterior and medially
-4th, 5th interspace

33

what is the direction of flow of blood through the pulmonary valve?
where is it located?

-superiorly and to the left
-2nd left intercostal space

34

what is the direction of blood flow through the mitral valve?
Where can you palpate it?

-anteriorly and inferiorly
- towards the apex right side 5th intercostal space mid clavicular line

35

what is the direction of blood flow through the aortic valve?
Where can you hear it?

-superiorly and to the right
-2nd right intercostal space

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