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S&F III: Exam 1 > Heart Morphology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Heart Morphology Deck (90):
1

Atria receive?

(2) venous blood

2

Ventricles do?

(2) pump blood away from heart via lg arteries

3

Pulmonary Circuit (Rt)

SVC/IVC-->deoxy blood into RA-->RV-->PT-->lungs

4

Systemic Circuit (Lt)

4PVv-->oxy blood into LA-->LV-->AA

5

Heart Rotation

embryo: RA/RV on R; LA/LV on L

fetus: Atria on R; Ventricles on L

6

Right border of Heart

right atrium; from 3rd-6th right costal cartilages

7

inferior border of heart

right ventricle, apex; from 6th right costal cartilage to apex of heart

8

apex of heart

part of left ventricle; located 5th left ICS at midclavicular line

9

left border of heart

LV, left auricle of LV; from apex to left 2nd costal cartilage

10

superior border

term/origin of great vessels, right and left auricles; from 2nd left to 3rd right costal cartilage

11

Atrioventricular (coronary) sulcus

separates atria from ventricles

12

anterior and poster interventricular sulci

separates LV/RV

13

anterior (sternocostal) surface

RV and slight RA

14

inferior (diaphragmatic) surface

RV and LV

15

posterior surface

LA

16

crista terminalis

divides the RA into two morpho divisions

17

anterior part of RA

muscular walls forming the musculi pectinati

18

musculi pectinati

small crisscrossing ridges in ant. RA

19

posterior part of RA

smooth walled, receives SVC/IVC and coronary sinus

20

coronary sinus

coronary vein of the heart

21

right auricle

small pouch-like appendage of RA that surrounded by musculi pectinati

22

posterior wall of RA

forms part of the interatrial septum that separates LA/RA

23

fossa ovalis

in posterior wall of RA; thin-walled remnant of foramen ovale

24

limbus of fossa ovalis

thick upper margin of fossa

25

foramen ovale

in fetus, allows blood flow from RA to LA (bypassing lungs)

26

probe-patent foramen ovale

minor ASD resulting from improper congenital closure

27

Trabeculae Carnae of RV

irregular ridges of muscle that line the ventricular lumen, including the moderator band

28

moderator band

specialized muscle that aids in the electrical conduction system

29

infundibulum (conus arteriosus) of RV

superior, cone-shaped part of ventricle that is smooth-walled and inf. to orifice of PT

30

posterior wall of RV

forms part of interventricular septum

31

tricuspid valve

right atrioventricle orifice, three cusps that have ventricular attachment and free margins

32

anulus fibrosis

ring of fibrous tissue that tricuspid valve cusps attach to

33

anterior cusp of tricuspid

anterior wall of RV

34

posterior cusp of tricuspid

inferior to anterior cusp

35

septal cusp of tricuspid

posteriorly on interventricular septal wall

36

chordae tendineae

attach the cusps to the papillary muscles and to each other.

37

how do valves close?

force of ventricular blood against tensed cusps; NOT PAPILLARY MUSCLES

38

Pulmonary Valve

three semilunar cusps, sinus, closes off with systole

39

pulmonary valve incompetence

thickened and inflexible free margins of cusp cause no valve closure

40

pulmonary stenosis/ aortic stenosis

disease causes hardening; hypertrophy of respective valve

41

fibrous skeleton of heart

CT; provides attachment for valves/cardiac fibers, separates muscles of the two chambers, rigidity to orifices

42

left atrium

smooth walled, except auricle (pectinate)
receives 4 PV

43

left ventricle

3x thicker than right bc of AA

44

lining of LV

trabeculae carnae except at aortic vestibule

45

aortic vestibule

smooth walled
below Aortic valve

46

interventicular septum

composed of muscular and membranous sections

47

membranous section of IVS

thin, inf. to right and posterior valves of aortic valve

48

VSD

@ membranous section of IVS

49

bicuspid valve

two cusps (post. and ant.)

50

rheumatic fever

bicuspid valve affected due to Ca2+ deposits

51

Aortic valve

3 semilunar cusps; openings to right and left coronary arteries

DIASTOLE

52

Diastolic valves

1) atria contract and ventricles relax
2) tricuspid and bicuspid open
3) aortic and pulmonary valves closed

53

Systolic valves

1) atria relax, ventricles contract
2) tricuspid/bicuspid close
3) aortic and pulmonary valve open

54

coronary vessels

provide blood to heart muscle
located in atrioventricular and interventricular sulci

55

Right Coronary A.

descents into atrioventricular sulcus

supplies: rt heart, SA and AV nodes, post 1/3 of IVS

56

Sinuatrial nodal artery

supplies SA node (RCA branch)

57

Marginal artery

passes along inferior RV margin towards apex (RCA branch)

58

AV nodal artery

supplies AV node and atrioventricular bundles (RCA branch)

59

atrioventricular bundles

part of conduction system from AV node to ventricles (RCA)

60

posterior interventricular branch (Post. Desc. A)

(RCA) supplies R/LV and post 1/3 of IVS

61

coronary anastomoses

PIVB with AIVB
Circumflex Branch with term. RCA

62

Left Coronary Artery

supplies: Lt heart, ant 2/3 of IVS, atrioventricular bundles

63

LAD (ant. descend. A)

supplies both ventricles and ant 2/3 of IVS

inferior atrioventricular sulcus

64

Circumflex branch of LCA

posterior AVSulcus

supplies lt. heart

anastomoses with termination of RCA

65

Right dominant heart

PIVB supplied by RCA

66

Lt dominant heart

PIVB supplied by circumflex branch of LCA;

death with blockage

67

myocardial infarction

due to artherosclerosis of Coronary arteries

68

Coronary bypass sx

occluded artery replaced by leg vein, or ICA

69

angioplasty

inserted into occluded artery through AA

70

Coronary Sinus

large vein in post. part of AV sulcus which receives most of blood of heart thru tributaries (great cardiac vein, middle cardiac vein, small cardiac vein)

71

Where does coronary sinus open and what's its valve like?

RA superior to IVC opening; rudimentary (1 cusp)

72

Great Cardiac Vein

anterior part of Interventricular sulcus and courses post. into AV sulcus;

drains area of heart supplied by LCA

73

Middle Cardiac Vein

posterior part of IV sulcus

drains area supplied by PIVA

74

Small Cardiac Vein

right ant/-inf. margin of LV

drains area supplied by Marginal Artery

75

Anterior Cardiac Veins

2-4 veins that drain into RA

76

what tributaries enter the Coronary Sinus?

Great, Middle, and Small Cardiac Veins

77

Venae Cordis Minimae (Smallest)

open directly into chambers of heart

78

SA node

pacemaker of heart, located superior part of Crista Terminalis in RA

79

why do atrial conductions not reach ventricles?

fibrous skeleton of the heart prevents conductionn

80

AV node

inferior part of interatrial septum; sends delayed impulses to AV bundle

81

AV bundle

pierces Fibrous Rings; passes through IVS

82

Right AV bundle

passes through moderator band (septomarginal trabeculae)

83

where does moderator band attach

base of anterior papillary muscle

84

Left AV bundle

supplies LV and papillary muscles

85

where is Artificial pacemaker connected?

right ventricle

86

vagus nerve

(parasympathetics) decreases heart rate and force of beat; constricts coronary arteries

87

sympathetic nerves

increase HR and force of beat; dilate coronary arteries

88

Sensory Fibers to Heart

INSENS. TO TOUCH AND TEMP.; react to metabolic prod. from ischemia

89

where to sensory heart fibers enter SC?

T1-t4 on left side

90

referred pain from heart location?

chest and upper arm