Lungs and Pleural Cavities Flashcards Preview

S&F III: Exam 1 > Lungs and Pleural Cavities > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lungs and Pleural Cavities Deck (84):
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Stage 1 of development

Pleural cavity develops from coelomic space and lined by coelomic membrane (pleurae)

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Stage 2 of development

Lung buds push against pleura (which become visceral pleura adherent to organ surface)

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Contents of pleural cavity

Serous fluid. NOT LUNG

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Stage 3 of development

Further growth of lung ⬇️ size of pleural cavity.

Bronchi and blood vessels to lung become covered w pleura

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Endothoracic fascia

Layer of fascia separates rib and intercostal muscles from parietal pleura

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Mediastinal pleura

Pleura in middle of lungs

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Costal pleura

Adjacent to ribs

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Diaphragmatic pleura

Pleura adj to diaphragm

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Cervical pleura

Pleura adj to cervical vertebrae

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Pleural Cavity Recesses clinical

Areas where fluid, etc can become trapped.


Normally air filled

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Costodiaphragmatic recesses

on RT and LT. split like space near costodiaphragmatic pleura (anterior)

lungs DO NOT enter this space

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Inferior border of pleura

Rib 8--> rib 10--> T12 as move anterior to posterior

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Costomediastinal recess

near costomediastinal pleura location (LT>>>RT)

anterior margin of Lungs ENTER during inspiration

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Superior border of pleura

1" above costal cartilage 1

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External pneumothorax

Air enters pleural cavity from channel thru thoracic wall made by knife wound

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Internal pneumothorax

Air enters pleural cavity from rupture of air tubes at surface of lungs

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Hemothorax

Blood in pleural cavity

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Pyothorax

Pus in pleural cavity

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Hydrothorax

CHF causes increased tissue fluid in cavity

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Chylothorax

Lymph due to tear in thoracic duct

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Pleurisy

Inflammation,

Fibrous adhesions on pleura result in "friction rub" (audible)

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Referred pain from pleura

Phrenic nerve (C3-C5)

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Costal pleura innerv.

Intercostal n.

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Mediastinal pleura innerv.

Phrenic n.

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Respiratory system development stage 1

Larngyotracheal tube bifurcated into lung buds which form 1. Main bronchi --> lobar bronchi --> segmental bronchi

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Respiratory system development stage 2

Endoderm forms linings of airway.
Splanchnic mesoderm forms CT, cartilage, and muscles of airways

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Respiratory system development stage 3

Pleural cavity forms from intraembryonic coelom
Pleural membranes form from lateral mesoderm

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Parietal pleura

Formed from intraembryonic somatic mesoderm

Lines inner thoracic wall

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Visceral pleura

Forms from intraembryonic splanchnic mesoderm

Covers lung surface

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Esophageal atresia

Absence of normal lumen

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Esophageal atresia clinical

Polyhydramnios in fetus

(Fluid doesn't reach small intestine for absorption)

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Tracheoesophageal fistula

Abnormal channel btwn 2 structures

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Rt Lung gross anat

Superior Lobe, horizontal fissure (@rib 4), Middle lobe, oblique fissure, inferior lobe

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Lt lung gross anat

Superior lobe w/ cardiac notch and lingula, oblique fissure (@ rib 6), inferior lobe

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Landmark of costodiaphragmatic recess

1. Space between base of lung and inf border of pleural cav covered w diaphragmatic pleura

2. 2 rib or 2 vertebral levels wide

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Midclavicular plane base

Lung: rib 6
Cavity: rib 8

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Midaxillary plane bases

Lung: rib 8
Cav: rib 10

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Posterior-inferior bases

Lung: T10 spine
Cav: T12 spine

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Oblique fissure levels

Rib 6 --> T3

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Horizontal fissure level

Rib 4 to midaxillary plane

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Root of lung

Collection of neurovascular structures that supply the organ

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Hilum of lung

Doorway to organ for entrance/exit of root

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Hilum of lung borders

Posterior: bronchus (eparterial/upper lobar, main)
Ant-sup: pulmonary artery
Ant-inf; pulmonary vein

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Where does phrenic nerve pass?

Anterior to lung root

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Where does trachea divide?

@sternal angle, becomes lt and rt main bronchus

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Pulmonary circulation

Deoxy--> flows from rt ventricle to pulm trunk to rt and lt pulm a.

Oxy--> flows from lungs into 2 rt and 2 lt pulm veins to left atrium

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Bronchial arteries

From aorta or rt 5th posterior intercostal a.

Supplies lungs w blood

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Bronchial veins

Drain into intercostal veins--> azygos system

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Lymph drainage

Bronchopulmonary nodes (at hilum)--> tracheobronchial nodes--> brochomediastinal lymph trunk

Rt: goes to a) lymphatic duct--> brachiocephalic b) brachiocephalic

Lt: a) thoracic duct--> subclavian b) subclavian

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Pulmonary ANS travel where

On Bronchi to lungs

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PANS

Constrict passages, dilate blood vessels, increase mucous secretion

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SANS

Dilate respiratory passages, constrict blood vessels, decrease mucus secretion

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Inspiration

increases size of thoracic cavity, decreasing pressure within

enlarged in vertical, A-P, and transverse planes

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Inspiration vertical diameter

enlarged through contraction of muscular diaphragm, resulting in flattening of its domes

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inspiration A-P diameter

increased by thrusting inferior ribs anteriorly through intercostal muscle attachment at the sternum;

immobilization of first rib through neck muscles and scalenes

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inspiration transverse diameter

same as A-P actions; "buckle handle" effect of raising downward curving ribs

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Quiet Inspiration

first rib fixed, normal inspiration activities;

passive; returns to pre-inspiratory process

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Forced inspiration

same as quiet inspiration, w/ the addition of forceful contraction of the neck muscle resulting in elevation of rib 1

active, posterior muscles pull down rib 12 and anterior muscles force ab organs against diaphragm

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Heimlich manuveur

similar to forced respiration, ab organs pushed into diaphragm to increase pressure

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mediastinum

centrally placed

contains heart, great vessels, esophagus, and trachea

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potential space

under negative pressure

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function of pleura

mesothelium (histo)

secretes serous susbstance (lubricant and film)

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1" above medial 1/3 of clavicle

surface projection of pleura

knife wound @ neck can puncture it

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Right side surface projection

continues inferiorly to xiphisternal joint

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left side surface projection

inf. to rib 4--> lat to sternal margin--> inf to rib 6

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C7 spine

marks the superior posterior extent of pleura

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intercostal nerves

costal pleura and peripheral part of diaphragmatic pleura

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phrenic nerve

medial to mediastinal pleura

innervates them and central diaphragmatic pleura

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Referred pain in pleura

mediastinal pain: shoulder
costal pleura @ 4th ICS: skin of nipple

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Visceral pleura innerv.

none! insensitive

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Cardiac notch

indentation in left superior lobe; lateral between ribs 4-6

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Lingula

tongue of left superior lobe, extends into left costomediastinal space during inspiration

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Auscultation important knowledge

superior lobe is anterior, posterior lobe is superior

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Pulmonary ligament

two layers of pleura in direct contact, post. of root
no major neurovasc structures

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Rt Main bronchus divisions

superior, middle,and lobar bronchi

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Lt Main bronchus divisions

superior and inferior lobar bronchi

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Pulmonary Trunk

deoxy blood, splits into Lt and Rt Pulmonary arteries

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Pulmonary veins

two per lung; enter left atrium

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Lt. Bronchial Arteries

two directly from aorta

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Rt. Bronchial Arteries

one from posterior intercostal artery at 5th ICS

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Deep Lymphatic Plexus

-->pulmonary nodes--> bronchopulmonary nodes

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Superficial Lymphatic Plexus

--> bronchopulmonary nodes

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Pulmonary Plexus of Nerves

surrounds bronchi

composed of PANS and SANS that regulate blood flow, secretions of substances, etc/

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Bronchopulmonary Segment

10/lung; surgical and functional unit

has own veins/arteries

can be removed with minimal blood loss and no risk of pneumothorax