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Flashcards in Heart Sounds Deck (31):
1

Which is usually softer: S1 or S2?

S1 is softer

2

Which is usually softer: right or left sided heart sounds?

Right sided

3

Where are S3 and S4 best heard? Which side of the stethoscope should be used?

At the apex, with the bell

4

How are systolic murmurs graded?

1-6

5

How are diastolic murmurs graded?

1-4

6

What is the naming convention for murmurs?

Grade cycle intensity radiation

7

What are the three causes of pulmonic stenosis?

-Congenital heart structural disease
-Rheumatic valvular disease
-Carcinoid syndrome

8

What are the two major causes of tricuspid regurgitation?

Infection
Rheumatic fever

9

What are the four major causes of pulmonic regurgitation?

-Rheumatic valvular disease
-Carcinoid syndrome
-Pulmonary HTN
-CT diseases

10

What are the three major causes of tricuspid stenosis?

-Rheumatic valvular disease
-Congenital heart structural disease
-Age/calcification

11

What are the three major causes of aortic stenosis?

-Age/calcification
-Congenital disease
-Infective endocarditis

12

Why is it that pts with Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are better with higher volumes?

Increased filling of the ventricle makes the septal hypertrophy a more minor contributor to outflow obstruction

13

Where is the murmur from HCM heard best? Why?

Apex d/t backflow from

14

What are the four major causes of aortic regurgitation?

-Endocarditis
-Root dilation
-Congenital (bicuspid valve)
-CT disorder

15

Where does mitral stenosis radiate to?

Precordial area

16

Does increased volume return make the murmur with mitral stenosis worse or better?

worse

17

What are the two major causes of mitral stenosis?

Infective endocarditis
Calcific changes

18

What happens to the OS with mitral valve prolapse when there is decreased systolic volumes?

Moves OS earlier

19

What happens to the OS with mitral valve prolapse when there is increased systolic volumes?

Moves the OS later

20

What is the effect of aortic regurgitation on the murmurs from a VSD and mitral regurg?

Increases d/t increased LV filling/volume

21

What is the effect of aortic regurgitation on HCM murmur? Why?

Decreases, since it increases LV filling

22

What is the effect of standing with HCM?

Increases murmur d/t decreased LV filling

23

What is the effect of sitting/lying down with HCM?

Decreases murmur d/t increased LV filling

24

What is the effect of the valsalva maneuver on HCM?

Bearing down reduces return and LV volume, increasing stenosis

25

What is the effect of hand grip on mitral regurgitation?

Increases SVR and LV pressure, thereby increasing the pressure gradient between the LV and LA

26

What position of the patient is best for hearing S3 and S4?

Left lateral recumbent

27

What is the treatment for mitral regurg? Why?

-ACEIs
-Diuretics

Reduce the ssx of HF

28

What is the treatment for dilated cardiomyopathy?

-Diuretics
-ACEIs
-Beta blockers

29

What is the treatment for aortic stenosis?

Positive inotropes

30

What is the treatment for mitral regurg?

Decrease BP
Increase inotropy

31

What is the treatment for mitral stenosis?

Increase