Sudden increase in the intra-ocular pressure often seen with narrow angle between the iris and they cornea with obstructs the flow of aqueous humor in the canal of Schlemm (sclera venous sinus).
What should you do with acute glaucoma?
Refer urgently to hospital
Presents with a painful red eye and a hard eyeball, vision will be hazy in the beginning.
One pupil is dilated (larger than unaffected pupil) and reacts poorly to light.
Adie’s pupil aka?
What should you do with someone with Adie’s pupil (tonic pupil)?
Refer to a neurologist
Adie’s pupil mainly affects what group?
Adie’s pupil is a benign condition (T/F)?
True - Adie’s pupil is benign
One pupil is small; reacts poorly to light but reacts well to accommodation
Argyll Robertson pupil
Argyll Robertson pupil may be seen in what two conditions?
Argyll Robertson pupil patients should be referred to ?
Inflammation of the eyelids
Blepharitis may be due to what 3 things?
How does blepharitis present?
Swollen itching tender eyelids
Blepharitis patients should be referred to?
Clot formation in the cavernous sinus in the brain following spread of infection from the face.
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Cavernous sinus thrombosis presents with what?
Swollen eyelids (Periorbital edema) and diplopia (due to CN damage)
Cavernous sinus thrombosis can damage what 3 CN’s that pass though the cavernous sinus?
III, IV, V
Referral for cavernous sinus patients?
Refer urgently to hospital for antibiotics
A benign granulomatous lesion in the tarsal (Meibomian) gland of the eyelid.
Presents as a painless swelling on the inside of the eyelid; it may become infected and painful.
Referral for chalazion?
Refer to ophthalmologist
Gradual increase in intraocular pressure due to excessive production of aqueous humor or to gradual obstruction to the canal of Schlemm
Presents with gradual loss of vision, especially in the periphery causing tunnel vision.
Associated with increase cupping of the disc due to raised intraocular pressure
Chronic glaucoma referral?
Refer to an ophthalmologist
Infection of the conjunctiva
Conjunctivitis is MC of viral or bacterial origin?
MC viral, but it could be bacterial
Conjunctivitis in neonates of bacterial origin is usually:
Presents with itching, pain, tearing, and a red eye with discharge
Referral for conjunctivitis?
Refer to a medical doctor
Damage to the retina seen in poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.
Diabetic retinopathy presents with _____ vision.
Characterized by microaneurysms (dots) and flame hemorrhages in the retina.
Diabetic neuropathy referral?
Refer to ophthalmologist
External sagging of the lower lid
Ectropion is usually seen in what population?
Turning in of the lower eyelid, painful eye with turned-in lower eyelid
Entropion may be congenital or acquired due to:
Scarring due to trachomatis