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Flashcards in Hematopoiesis Deck (40):
1

The formation of all blood cellular components (primarily inside the bone marrow) is called ___________.

Hematopoiesis

2

Hematopoiesis occurs primarily in what location during the following stages of life:

1st trimester of fetal life: ?

2nd trimester of fetal life: ?

7 months and on for adult life: ?

Yolk sac

Liver and spleen

Bone marrow

3

As an adult, hematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow of which bones from most to least?

Vertebral and pelvis (pelvis is main site for bone marrow biopsies)

Sternum (2ndry site for bone marrow biopsies but not a good option)

Ribs

(Not a bone but lymph nodes)

Femur

Tibial

4

Which bone marrow compartment is highly vascular and contains hematopoietic stem cells, committed precursor cells and maturing cells?

Hematopoietic cell compartment

5

Which compartment in the bone marrow is where you'll see the production of hematopoietic growth factors: (endothelial cells, marrow fibroblasts and stromal (reticular) cells); barrier (endothelial cells); source so energy (adipose cells); removal of dead cells and debris (macrophages)?

Marrow Stromal Compartment

6

What is a distinguishing difference in red marrow vs yellow marrow?

Yellow marrow has adipocytes or fat cells

7

________ bone marrow is not active in blood cell formation. It contains predominately ________ cells.

Some bone marrow with fat in the ribs, vertebrae, pelvis, shoulder girdle retains its ________________

Cellularity (or potential to produce blood cells ) _________ with age

Yellow

Adipose

Hemopoietic potential

Decreases

8

Stroma is _________ tissue

And includes _________ and __________

Connective

Adipocytes & macrophages

9

Bundles of blood cells at different stages of maturation are called_________

Hematopoietic cords

10

__________ are b/w cords, lined with endothelial cells, and often have megakaryocytes discharging protoplatelets into the sinusoid

Vascular sinusoids

11

Hematopoietic ________ are capable of self-renewal

These cells are _____potent

Stem cells

Pluripotent

12

After hematopoietic stem cells, we see_________in the development of hematopoiesis

Examples of these cells include: ??

Committed precursor cells

BFU-E, CFU-Mega,CFU-GM, Pre-B Cell, Prothymocyte

13

Hematopoietic stem cells -> committed precursor cell -> __________

Examples of these cells include ??

Maturing cells (are committed)

Proerythroblast, megakaryocyte, mono blasts,myeloblast, b-lymphoblast, t-lymphoblast

14

Hematopoietic growth factors control _______ and __________ phases of hematopoiesis.

Is used for _______________.

Are produced in ________ by endothelial cells, stromal cells, fibroblasts, developing lymphocytes, and macrophages

Proliferative
Maturational

Clinical treatments

Bone marrow

15

The three major groups of hematopoietic growth factors are...?

Colony-stimulating factors (CSF)

Erythropoietin (EPO) and Thrombopoietin (TPO)

Cytokines (primarily Interleukins)

16

This growth factor is a weak stimulator of hematopoiesis and makes stem cells responsive to other cytokines. It is called __________,which has a closely related growth factor called _________ which acts on pluripotent stem cells.

Stem cell factor (SCF)

Flt3 ligand

17

This growth factor influences the replication and growth potential of hematopoietic progenitors,BFU-E and CFU-E (erythrocytes), CFU-meg and Mega (platelets), CFU-GM and CFU-G (neutrophils) and CFU-M (onocytes and macrophages), CFU-Eo (Eosinophils), and CFU-Bas (Basophils). This growth factor is called _________.

IL-3 (interleukin-3)

18

These growth factors act on pluripotent stem cells to develop the lymphoid stem cells, which eventually produces B and T lymphocytes. The growth factor is ____________

Interleukins 1 and 4

19

This growth factor acts primarily on T-cells and also on B-cells. It's called ________

Interleukin 2 (IL-2)

20

This growth factor works in conjunction with IL-2 to affect B lymphocytes. It's called ________

Interleukin 6 (IL-6)

21

___________ is a growth factor produced by endothelial cells, T cells, fibroblasts, and monocytes that stimulates the formation of all leukocytes and reticulocytes (erythrocytes, platelets, neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils)

GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor)

22

___________ is a hematopoietic growth factor produced by endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and macrophages that stimulates an increase in neutrophils. It can be used as treatment for eutropenia after chemotherapy, bone marrow transplant.

G-CSF

23

_______ is a hematopoietic growth factor that stimulates an increase in monocytes and macrophages

M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor

24

_________ is a growth factor, produced primarily in the kidney, stimulates the formation of RBCs

EPO (erythropoietin)

25

__________ is a hematopoietic growth factor that stimulates an increase in megakaryocytes and platelets, produced primarily in the liver.

TPO (thrombopoietin)

26

RBCs (erythrocytes) deliver ________ from lungs to tissues
And pick up ______ front eh tissues to unload it in the lungs

Oxygen

CO2

27

Thrmobocytes (platelets) secrete _________ and stick together to form a temporary ____________

Vasoconstrictors

Platelet plug

28

List the 6 stages of erythropoiesis

1. Pronormoblast
2. Basophilic normoblast
3. Polychromatic normoblast
4. Orthochromic normoblast
5. Polychromatic erythrocyte (Reticulocyte)
6. Erythrocyte

PBPORE

29

Because 90% of EPO is produced in the ________ in response to _________,erythropoietin levels during chronic ________ disease would cause __________.

You could treat with IV or subcutaneous _______ and monitor for an increase in ___________ in blood

Kidney

Hypoxia

Kidney

Anemia

EPO

Reticulocytes

30

Hematopoiesis of Thrombocytes goes through the following three cell stages:
________
________
________

Megakaryoblast -> megakaryocyte -> Platelets

31

TPO is a major regulator of _________ and _______ development. It is produced in the _________ and in smaller amounts in the _________ and the ________.

Chronic liver disease would cause a(n) _________ in TPO levels, resulting in the condition _________.

To treat, you would administer _____ and monitor for an increase in ________ in the blood.

Megakaryocyte
Platelet

Liver
Kidney & bone marrow

Decrease

Thrombocytopenia (decreased platelets)

TPO
Platelets

32

Agranulopoiesis causes an increase in __________, NO __________________ form, NO nuclear ________, and cell size ________

Agranulopoiesis produces ___________ and _________

Heterechromatin

Specific granules

Lobulation

Decreases

Lymphocytes & monocyte

33

Granulopoiesis causes __________ to condense, cytoplasmic _________ form, nucleus becomes __________ and cell size ______________

And it produces ________, _________, and __________.

Chromatin
Granules

Lobulated

Decreases

Neutrophils, basophils & eosinophils

34

Neutrophils phagocytize ___________ and release_____________ chemicals

Bacteria

Antimicrobial

35

Eosinophils phagocytize _______-___________ complexes , _______ and ____________chemicals

They have anti-_________ and _______-cidal activity

Antigen-antibody

Allergens

Inflammatory

Antiparasitic & bactericidal

36

Basophils secrete ________ and ___________ which cause ___________ reactions during ________responses relating to ___________

Histamine & heparin

Inflammatory

Immune

Allergies

37

The leukopoiesis of granulocytes (neutrophils) involves the following 6 cell steps....

1. Myeloblast
2. Promyelocyte
3. Myelocyte
4. Metayelocyte
5. Band
6. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)

MPMMBP

38

Lymphocytes:
B and T cells canNOT be distinguished by light microscope

B cells secrete _________

T cells ____________

Antibodies

Destroy cancer cells, virus infected cells, and foreign cells

39

Lymphocytes in a peripheral blood smear appear ______ and are often in an eccentric _______

They are roughly the size of _________

Round

Location

RBCs

40

When active, lymphocytes have show __________versus a ____________ in an inactive lymphocyte

Increased cytoplasm rim (active)

Very narrow cytoplasmic rim (inactive)