Flashcards in Hematopoiesis Deck (40):
The formation of all blood cellular components (primarily inside the bone marrow) is called ___________.
Hematopoiesis occurs primarily in what location during the following stages of life:
1st trimester of fetal life: ?
2nd trimester of fetal life: ?
7 months and on for adult life: ?
Liver and spleen
As an adult, hematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow of which bones from most to least?
Vertebral and pelvis (pelvis is main site for bone marrow biopsies)
Sternum (2ndry site for bone marrow biopsies but not a good option)
(Not a bone but lymph nodes)
Which bone marrow compartment is highly vascular and contains hematopoietic stem cells, committed precursor cells and maturing cells?
Hematopoietic cell compartment
Which compartment in the bone marrow is where you'll see the production of hematopoietic growth factors: (endothelial cells, marrow fibroblasts and stromal (reticular) cells); barrier (endothelial cells); source so energy (adipose cells); removal of dead cells and debris (macrophages)?
Marrow Stromal Compartment
What is a distinguishing difference in red marrow vs yellow marrow?
Yellow marrow has adipocytes or fat cells
________ bone marrow is not active in blood cell formation. It contains predominately ________ cells.
Some bone marrow with fat in the ribs, vertebrae, pelvis, shoulder girdle retains its ________________
Cellularity (or potential to produce blood cells ) _________ with age
Stroma is _________ tissue
And includes _________ and __________
Adipocytes & macrophages
Bundles of blood cells at different stages of maturation are called_________
__________ are b/w cords, lined with endothelial cells, and often have megakaryocytes discharging protoplatelets into the sinusoid
Hematopoietic ________ are capable of self-renewal
These cells are _____potent
After hematopoietic stem cells, we see_________in the development of hematopoiesis
Examples of these cells include: ??
Committed precursor cells
BFU-E, CFU-Mega,CFU-GM, Pre-B Cell, Prothymocyte
Hematopoietic stem cells -> committed precursor cell -> __________
Examples of these cells include ??
Maturing cells (are committed)
Proerythroblast, megakaryocyte, mono blasts,myeloblast, b-lymphoblast, t-lymphoblast
Hematopoietic growth factors control _______ and __________ phases of hematopoiesis.
Is used for _______________.
Are produced in ________ by endothelial cells, stromal cells, fibroblasts, developing lymphocytes, and macrophages
The three major groups of hematopoietic growth factors are...?
Colony-stimulating factors (CSF)
Erythropoietin (EPO) and Thrombopoietin (TPO)
Cytokines (primarily Interleukins)
This growth factor is a weak stimulator of hematopoiesis and makes stem cells responsive to other cytokines. It is called __________,which has a closely related growth factor called _________ which acts on pluripotent stem cells.
Stem cell factor (SCF)
This growth factor influences the replication and growth potential of hematopoietic progenitors,BFU-E and CFU-E (erythrocytes), CFU-meg and Mega (platelets), CFU-GM and CFU-G (neutrophils) and CFU-M (onocytes and macrophages), CFU-Eo (Eosinophils), and CFU-Bas (Basophils). This growth factor is called _________.
These growth factors act on pluripotent stem cells to develop the lymphoid stem cells, which eventually produces B and T lymphocytes. The growth factor is ____________
Interleukins 1 and 4
This growth factor acts primarily on T-cells and also on B-cells. It's called ________
Interleukin 2 (IL-2)
This growth factor works in conjunction with IL-2 to affect B lymphocytes. It's called ________
Interleukin 6 (IL-6)
___________ is a growth factor produced by endothelial cells, T cells, fibroblasts, and monocytes that stimulates the formation of all leukocytes and reticulocytes (erythrocytes, platelets, neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils)
GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor)
___________ is a hematopoietic growth factor produced by endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and macrophages that stimulates an increase in neutrophils. It can be used as treatment for eutropenia after chemotherapy, bone marrow transplant.
_______ is a hematopoietic growth factor that stimulates an increase in monocytes and macrophages
M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor
_________ is a growth factor, produced primarily in the kidney, stimulates the formation of RBCs
__________ is a hematopoietic growth factor that stimulates an increase in megakaryocytes and platelets, produced primarily in the liver.
RBCs (erythrocytes) deliver ________ from lungs to tissues
And pick up ______ front eh tissues to unload it in the lungs
Thrmobocytes (platelets) secrete _________ and stick together to form a temporary ____________
List the 6 stages of erythropoiesis
2. Basophilic normoblast
3. Polychromatic normoblast
4. Orthochromic normoblast
5. Polychromatic erythrocyte (Reticulocyte)
Because 90% of EPO is produced in the ________ in response to _________,erythropoietin levels during chronic ________ disease would cause __________.
You could treat with IV or subcutaneous _______ and monitor for an increase in ___________ in blood
Hematopoiesis of Thrombocytes goes through the following three cell stages:
Megakaryoblast -> megakaryocyte -> Platelets
TPO is a major regulator of _________ and _______ development. It is produced in the _________ and in smaller amounts in the _________ and the ________.
Chronic liver disease would cause a(n) _________ in TPO levels, resulting in the condition _________.
To treat, you would administer _____ and monitor for an increase in ________ in the blood.
Kidney & bone marrow
Thrombocytopenia (decreased platelets)
Agranulopoiesis causes an increase in __________, NO __________________ form, NO nuclear ________, and cell size ________
Agranulopoiesis produces ___________ and _________
Lymphocytes & monocyte
Granulopoiesis causes __________ to condense, cytoplasmic _________ form, nucleus becomes __________ and cell size ______________
And it produces ________, _________, and __________.
Neutrophils, basophils & eosinophils
Neutrophils phagocytize ___________ and release_____________ chemicals
Eosinophils phagocytize _______-___________ complexes , _______ and ____________chemicals
They have anti-_________ and _______-cidal activity
Antiparasitic & bactericidal
Basophils secrete ________ and ___________ which cause ___________ reactions during ________responses relating to ___________
Histamine & heparin
The leukopoiesis of granulocytes (neutrophils) involves the following 6 cell steps....
6. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)
B and T cells canNOT be distinguished by light microscope
B cells secrete _________
T cells ____________
Destroy cancer cells, virus infected cells, and foreign cells
Lymphocytes in a peripheral blood smear appear ______ and are often in an eccentric _______
They are roughly the size of _________