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Flashcards in Stem Cell Applications Deck (30):
1

Cellular ________ is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type

Differentiation

2

A stem cell is a ________ cell that can either ________ or give rise to more _________ cell types

Primitive

Self-renew

Specialized

3

Stem cells are not ___________ differentiated, can _________ without limit, and undergo _______ division

When they divide, they produce 1 cell with ______ characteristics and 1 cell with the ability to be __________

Terminally

Divide

Slow

Stem cell

Differentiated

4

Adult stem cells are ___________, for example: ....

Tissue-specific

E.g. Epidermal stem cells, intestinal stem cells, etc.

5

A stem cell with _____________ has the ability to give rise to all cells of an organism,including embryonic and extra embryonic tissues.

A ________ has this type of potency.

Totipotent

Zygote

6

A stem cell with ________ has the ability to give rise to all cells of the embryo and subsequently adult tissues.

__________ stem cells have this potency

Pluripotency

Embryonic

7

A stem cell with _________ has the ability to give rise to different cell types of a given lineage

____________ have this potency

Multipotency

Adult stem cells

(Think of hemapoietic stem cells)

8

True or False: A blastocyst is an example of a totipotent stem cell

False, a blastocyst is an example of a pluripotent stem cell. Only zygotes are totipotent.

About 4-5 days post-fertilization we see pluripotency

9

What type of stem cell can be cultured to produce varied cells in the body such as pancreatic islet cells and cardiomyocytes and neurons?

Pluripotent stem cells

10

________ stem cells are programmed to have a fixed number of divisions and are designated to various tissues in the body

Founder

11

*_____________ are cells that divide frequently and transit from a cell with stem cell characteristics to a differentiated cell. They are programmed to have a _________ number of divisions and are part of the strategy for _________ control

Transit Amplifying cells

Limited

Growth

12

To maintain a steady pool of stem cells, _______ of _______ cells must remain stem cells

This is accomplished by _________ and _________

50%

daughter

Divisional Asymmetry

Environmental Asymmetry

13

In this type of stem cell asymmetry, one cell produced with factors that give it the ability to differentiated: __________

In this type of stem cell asymmetry, division makes 2 identical cells but the environment may influence or alter one cell to become terminally differentiated: ______________

Divisional Asymmetry


Environmental Asymmetry

14

Embryonic Stem Cells are harvested from the ___________ for culture, where they are capable of proliferating __________

Blastocyst
(Of an embryo)

Indefinitely (forever)

15

If a stem cell taken from a blastocyst is injected into an adult, what must be done to avoid tumor production?

The ES cell(s)must be given a nudge as to what type of cell they should become, otherwise they will likely from teratomas due to lack of organization.

16

What clues would you give an ES cell if you wanted to produce adipocytes?

Retinoic acid -> insulin & thyroid hormones

17

What clue would you give an ES cell if you wanted to produce a neuron?

Retinoic acid

18

* Transcription factors ________, _________, _______ and _________ are essential for the establishment and maintenance of pluripotent stem cells in the embryo

*used to switch on

Nanog

Oct4

Sox2

FoxD3

*used to switch on

19

Cripto and GDF-3 are __________ found in _________ cells

Growth

Pluripotent

20

Adult stem cells are found in ________ and respond to the demands of _______/________

Tissues

Growth/repair

21

True or False: Evidence supports the contention that "adult stem cells can replace embryonic stem cells"

False, they have restricted capacity and growth potential unlike embryonic stem cells

22

Hemapoietic stem cells produce _________ components where stromal stem cells (or adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells) produce _________

Blood components

Connective tissues (bone, cartilage), muscle, tendon/ligament, adipose, pluripotent (?)

Why liposuction waste might be valuable

23

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are ________-derived whereas embryonic stems cells (ESCs) are not.

Patient-derived

24

One of the biggest challenges in using adult stem cells is the risk for _______________

Immune rejection

25

If immune rejection occurs with the implantation of adult stem cells because they were not genetically identical there is risk of _________ and you may try to treat with __________ techniques

Infection

Immunosuppressant

26

Alternative sources for Human ES cells are __________ and ___________

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)


Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cells

27

SCNT combines _________ methods with embryonic stem cell technology to produce cells which are ___________ for the patient

Name 2 challenges to SCNT:

Cloning

Custom-made

Inefficient (may need hundreds of oocyte)

Technically demanding

28

ES cells hold therapeutic potential for ....

It is controversial because....

Spinal cord injuries, heart failure, Parkinson, type 1 diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis and liver failure

It requires the harvesting and destruction of human embryos

29

Adult stem cells can be reprogrammed to behave live ES cells for therapeutic purposes as iPS cells (induced pluripotent stem cells) when the following transcription factors are used:

_________
_________
_________
_________

Oct 3/4
Sox2
Nanog
FoxD3

Also Lin28,N-Myc, Klf4, c-Myc

These are all used in combination

30

To induce pluripotency, you combine a _______ cell and denucleated ________ cell : fusion -> stimulate cell division process -> develop blastocyst -> extract inner cell mass culture pluripotent ES cells

Somatic cell

Egg cell