Flashcards in Stem Cell Applications Deck (30):
Cellular ________ is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type
A stem cell is a ________ cell that can either ________ or give rise to more _________ cell types
Stem cells are not ___________ differentiated, can _________ without limit, and undergo _______ division
When they divide, they produce 1 cell with ______ characteristics and 1 cell with the ability to be __________
Adult stem cells are ___________, for example: ....
E.g. Epidermal stem cells, intestinal stem cells, etc.
A stem cell with _____________ has the ability to give rise to all cells of an organism,including embryonic and extra embryonic tissues.
A ________ has this type of potency.
A stem cell with ________ has the ability to give rise to all cells of the embryo and subsequently adult tissues.
__________ stem cells have this potency
A stem cell with _________ has the ability to give rise to different cell types of a given lineage
____________ have this potency
Adult stem cells
(Think of hemapoietic stem cells)
True or False: A blastocyst is an example of a totipotent stem cell
False, a blastocyst is an example of a pluripotent stem cell. Only zygotes are totipotent.
About 4-5 days post-fertilization we see pluripotency
What type of stem cell can be cultured to produce varied cells in the body such as pancreatic islet cells and cardiomyocytes and neurons?
Pluripotent stem cells
________ stem cells are programmed to have a fixed number of divisions and are designated to various tissues in the body
*_____________ are cells that divide frequently and transit from a cell with stem cell characteristics to a differentiated cell. They are programmed to have a _________ number of divisions and are part of the strategy for _________ control
Transit Amplifying cells
To maintain a steady pool of stem cells, _______ of _______ cells must remain stem cells
This is accomplished by _________ and _________
In this type of stem cell asymmetry, one cell produced with factors that give it the ability to differentiated: __________
In this type of stem cell asymmetry, division makes 2 identical cells but the environment may influence or alter one cell to become terminally differentiated: ______________
Embryonic Stem Cells are harvested from the ___________ for culture, where they are capable of proliferating __________
(Of an embryo)
If a stem cell taken from a blastocyst is injected into an adult, what must be done to avoid tumor production?
The ES cell(s)must be given a nudge as to what type of cell they should become, otherwise they will likely from teratomas due to lack of organization.
What clues would you give an ES cell if you wanted to produce adipocytes?
Retinoic acid -> insulin & thyroid hormones
What clue would you give an ES cell if you wanted to produce a neuron?
* Transcription factors ________, _________, _______ and _________ are essential for the establishment and maintenance of pluripotent stem cells in the embryo
*used to switch on
*used to switch on
Cripto and GDF-3 are __________ found in _________ cells
Adult stem cells are found in ________ and respond to the demands of _______/________
True or False: Evidence supports the contention that "adult stem cells can replace embryonic stem cells"
False, they have restricted capacity and growth potential unlike embryonic stem cells
Hemapoietic stem cells produce _________ components where stromal stem cells (or adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells) produce _________
Connective tissues (bone, cartilage), muscle, tendon/ligament, adipose, pluripotent (?)
Why liposuction waste might be valuable
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are ________-derived whereas embryonic stems cells (ESCs) are not.
One of the biggest challenges in using adult stem cells is the risk for _______________
If immune rejection occurs with the implantation of adult stem cells because they were not genetically identical there is risk of _________ and you may try to treat with __________ techniques
Alternative sources for Human ES cells are __________ and ___________
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)
Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cells
SCNT combines _________ methods with embryonic stem cell technology to produce cells which are ___________ for the patient
Name 2 challenges to SCNT:
Inefficient (may need hundreds of oocyte)
ES cells hold therapeutic potential for ....
It is controversial because....
Spinal cord injuries, heart failure, Parkinson, type 1 diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis and liver failure
It requires the harvesting and destruction of human embryos
Adult stem cells can be reprogrammed to behave live ES cells for therapeutic purposes as iPS cells (induced pluripotent stem cells) when the following transcription factors are used:
Also Lin28,N-Myc, Klf4, c-Myc
These are all used in combination