When did Henry marry Catherine of Aragon?
When was Wolsey appointed Lord Chancellor and Chief Minister?
When did Wolsey become Papal Legate in England?
When was the Amicable Grant?
When did Henry want to annul his marriage with Catherine of Aragon?
What was the order of the great chain of being?
God - Angels - Royalty - Commoners - Animals - Plants - Non-Living Things
What was the social hierarchy in ascending order?
The Monarch and Church - Nobility - Gentry and Merchants - Yeoman and high skilled craftsmen - Tenant farmers and skilled tradesmen - Labourers and skilled workers
Why was Henry good to be a king?
- Looked like a leader
- Wanted to build an empire
- Sporty which pleased Nobles
- Young and charming
- Wanted Wars and power
- Good team of Advisors
Why was Henry a doubt to be a good king?
- He was very aggressive
- He had little experience
- Very stubborn and hard to compromise with
What is Jousting?
Knights who rode at each other with lances
What is an accession?
The act of becoming king
What does betrothed mean?
A formal engagement that could not easily be broken
What is a royal progress?
A tour of the kingdom by a monarch & entourage
What was the divine right of kings?
King’s believed that they had been appointed by God
What is a lord chancellor?
The kings chief secratary
What is the archbishop of York?
Second highest position within the Church
What is a Cardinal?
A priest of very high rank in the Roman Catholic Church
What is the pope?
Head of the Catholic Church
What is a star chamber?
Special law court; cases heard in secret
What is the royal household?
Henry & his family, and all the servants needed.
What is the privy chamber?
Men chosen by Henry to be his advisors.
who are the royal council?
The kings inner circle of advisors
what is the court?
The Household plus the King’s friends and advisors
What is parliament?
Its main aim was to raise taxes for special occasions
What was the justices of peace?
ts main aim was to raise taxes for special occasions
What was the enclosure?
Areas of farmland that were being fenced off for
private use, often taken from the common land
Why was the enclosures so insignificant?
Landowners lost land from this and wool traders had less space to skin animals.
In 1509, how much of the population lived in the countryside as a percentage
In 1509, where did 6% of people live
in the town
When was Wolsey born
what was Wolsey’s dads job
a butcher and cattle dealer
In what year did Wolsey gain a degree at Oxford to become a priest
Where did Wolsey go for university
What job was Wolsey given in 1509 when he joined the royal council
what is the royal almoner
somebody who gives money to the poor
In what year did Wolsey join the royal council
What 2 jobs were given to Wolsey in 1514
Bishop of Lincoln and Archbishop of York
what was the only job higher than archbishop of York
archbishop of Canterbury
When did Wolsey become Bishop of Lincoln
When did Wolsey become Archbishop of York
When did Wolsey become Lord Chancellor
when did Wolsey become Henry’s chief minister
when did Wolsey become a cardinal
What happened in 1512 that convinced Henry to give Wolsey chief minister and Lord Chancellor
Wolsey arranged an army to battle france which was well equipped and highly resourced
Who did Wolsey arrange an army against in what year that persuaded Henry that he was the man of for the job
france in 1512
When did Wolsey become Papal Legate
what is a Papal Legate
the popes representative of your own country
becoming Papal Legate made Wolsey the most ______ __________ in all of England
powerful/senior , churchman
Who was called the Alter Rex
what did the Alter Rex mean
it meant second king. Wolsey was referred to this due to his unlimited power
What college did Wolsey fund the build of
Who was the opposition to Wolsey
Nobility and Landowners
why did Nobility dislike Wolsey
He was poor and now the second richest in England so they saw him skipping the que. He was also seen as jumping the Great Chain of Being
Who were the royal council
the kings inner circle of advisors
Who was Francis I
king of France
Who was Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor and Spanish King
What relation was Charles V to Catherine of Aragon
Charles was her nephew
In 1517, Wolsey set up an inquiry to stop the enclosures heavily effecting _________
How did Wolsey make a fairer Justice system
- Increased star chambers and strengthened them
- Encouraged pour to bring cases to court
- supported poor over rich
What was the Eltham Ordinance 1526
It was a 79 chapter long reading of rules which tackled mismanagement of palaces.
When was the Eltham Ordinance
What were the rules in the Eltham Ordinance
- Cutting spending on meals and servants
- Laying off sick or unwanted servants
- Privy chamber from 12 to 6
when was subsidy brought in by Wolsey
what was subsidy
the tax that was paid, the more you earned the more you paid
What was Clerical Taxation
A voluntary gift from the church to the king
In 1523 and 1522, Landowners were forced to give money to who
When was the Amicable Grant
What was the Amicable Grant
It was a tax system put into to place to pay for the invasion of france
Why was the Amicable Grant introduced
- France lost a war to Habsburg empire
- England wanted to take lost land
Who would pay for the invasion of France
What was the tax required to be payed by a priest
1/3 of a priests home
What was the tax required by commoner to be payed
1/6 of a commoners home
Why was the Amicable Grant controversial
- It hadn’t been passed by the government and was being taken by royal decree
- People had 10 weeks to pay but couldn’t afford it so a rebellion could’ve broken out against Henry VIII
What happened to the Amicable Grant
Never took place and peace made with france instead
How was Wolsey affected by the Amicable Grant
- Reputation damaged as he took responsibility
- Wolsey unable to raise other taxes as first minister
- Doubted by Henry, starting his fall
Who was Scotland allied with during the reign of Wolsey
What areas were controlled by England in the reign of Wolsey
Wales, Ireland, Calais
How many states made up the Holy Roman Empire
What was the Habsburg Empire
the empire of Charles Vs Spain and Holy Roman Empire
Who were the ottoman empire
A powerful Muslim state that controlled parts of Europe and North Africa
What religion was Spain
What were Wolsey’s aims of the foreign policies
- better relation with Habsburgs and Francis I
- make France and Spain hate each other more
- more military glory but less expensive wars
- Prevent wars to make Peacemaker Henry
In 1512, who did England form an alliance with
when was the battle of Spurs with France
When was the treaty of London
what happened in the treaty of London
created ‘Universal Peace’ in Europe but it only lasted 3 years
when was the field of cloths
what happened at the field of cloths
Henry met Francis I and their relationship became worse
what happened at the treaty of Bruges
an agreement with Spain to seize French throne and take land
when was the treaty of Bruges
when was the 2nd war with France
why was Charles angry with England after beating france in the war
Charles saw England not doing much to help so didn’t share won land with England
When was the treaty of more
what happened in the treaty of more
formed English-French alliance against Spain
when was the treaty of Westminster
what happened in the treaty of Westminster
Charles threatened with war
when did England and france declare war against Spain
when was the treaty of Cambrai
what happened at the treaty of Cambrai
Spain and France made peace
who was Catherine of Aragon
aunt of Charles V
who was Catherine of Aragon’s first Husband
henry’s brother, author
why did henry want to ended his marriage with Catherine
- no healthy son
- henry liked Catherine
What happened in 1527 with the annulment
Wolsey told by henry to annul marriage with pope Clement
who was the pope at the time of the annulment
Who did Wolsey lead the enquiry of the annulment alongside
What made the case of the annulment more likely to pass in June 1529
Wolsey joining the commission with Campeggio
what made the case of the annulment less likely to pass in July 1529
Pope took case to Rome which was now ruled by Charles
What happened to Wolsey in October 1529
charged with Praemunire and chancellorship given to Sir Thomas More
what happened to Wolsey in September 1529
Wolsey stripped of palaces in St Albans and Winchester and suspended of York Archbishopship
When was Wolsey given a royal pardon and what was he given back
Feb 1530, Archbishop of York given back
In what year was Henry made King of England
In what year was the Battle of Spurs and where was it
France in 1512
who won the battle of spurs
Henry and England
England wanted the 1st war with France to continue from 1514-18, but why didn’t it continue
England couldn’t find any more countries to join them
when did Catherine of Aragon give birth to Mary
who was Catherine of Aragon’s first child
when did Cromwell join Wolsey’s council and become a trusted advisor
where did the Field of Cloth of Gold take place
what was the title ‘defender of faith’
it showed how strong the pope and Henry’s relation was
what name was Henry given by the pope in 1521
defender of faith
who was the pope at the time when Henry was named the ‘defender of faith’
pope Leo X
when was Henry given the name ‘defender of faith’