Henry V And The Conquest Of France 1413-21 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Henry V And The Conquest Of France 1413-21 Deck (21):

What did Henry V do before the invasion?

- Claimed all territories historically regarded as English, aswell as those handed over in the Treaty of Brétigny 1360
- Asked for the hand of Catherine of Valois, Charles VI youngest daughter


How did Henry secure the Kingdom in preparation for war with France (3)?

- Adopted a conciliatory attitude towards the Welsh: some rebels were pardoned and complaints of oppression by royal officials were investigated, more Welsh men joined the army
- Percy family was rehabilitated: Hotspur’s heir was granted his inheritances, securing the northern border
- 10-year truce with the Duke of Brittany was agreed, preventing Bretons from assisting the French


What was Henry’s fighting strength and how many of his soldiers were archers?

10-12k, of which 80% were longbow-men.


When did the Siege of Harfleur begin and end, and what exacerbated english losses?

- Siege began in August, Harfleur surrendered on the 22nd of September
- An outbreak of dysentery killed a substantial number of English soldiers


What did the French do to prevent Henry and the remainder of his army from crossing the Somme river?

- The French mirrored English movements on the other side of the channel and sabotaged or blocked all crossing points


How did Henry manage to cross the Somme and when did this happen?

- Henry’s men gained half a day’s march on the French
- A causeway was found and repaired
- The crossing occurred on 19th October


When was the Battle of Agincourt and why did the French lose?

- 25th October 1415
- The French used poor tactics: a frontal assault in close formation by heavily armoured foot soldiers and the presence of French cavalry at the rear caused very low manoeuvrability and prevented retreat
- English archers were ordered to engage in hand-to-hand combat after they ran out of arrows, being much more lightly armoured and more manoeuvrable, they slaughtered the French


What were the casualty figures at the Battle of Agincourt and what did Henry do to the French prisoners?

- French losses were in the thousands, the English lost only around one to three-hundred men
- Henry had the French prisoners executed, fearing they would support any encroaching reinforcements. The royal dukes of Orléans and Bourbons were taken alive.


What were the results of Henry's success in France (3)?

- Henry's success against the odds was seen as a sign that he was indeed the rightful King
- There was greater domestic security, since the threat of a French invasion was much less likely.
- Henry was greeted by a faithful and generous parliament, his revenue from taxation increased greatly.


What were the origins of Lollard views?

Wycliffe, an Oxford theologian and priest, held teachings and created writings that contravened traditional Church teachings, particularly regarding Church wealth and taxation, and the role of the priest in the sacraments of the Eucharist and Penance. Wycliffe's followers spread his views, many translated biblical scriptures.


What was John Oldcastle's past before his rebellion?

- Served the Lancastrain side during Glyndwr's rebellion
- Made and advantageous marriage in 1408, granting him numerous territorial assets
- Proposed anticlerical legislation at parliament in 1408, and this inspired the AoC's campaign against heresy in 1410: John Badby was retrialled and then publicy burned


What allowed Oldcastle to avoid persecution temporarily?

Oldcastle's comrade-in-arms relationship with Henry V enabled the avoidance of persecution initially


When was Oldcastle persecuted and what was his punishment?

In 1413, the ecclesiastical court found him guilty and he was sentenced to 40 years imprisonment in the ToL to repent. Oldcastle escaped the same year.


What did Oldcastle's plot involve?

Oldcastle plotted to murder the King at Eltham Palace, by smuggling in assassins disguised as mummers. Simultaneously, rebel troops were to assemble at St Giles' Fields. The plot failed, Oldcastle escaped once sighting the royal army and was arrested and burnt in December 1417.


What were the short-term effects of the revolt?

- Legislation was passed in the form of the Statue of Lollards which increased the role of secular authorities in investigating an persecuting heretics
- The Statute of Riots was amended too


What was the long-term significance of the revolt?

Nobles previously inclined to support the general aims of the Lollardsnow withdrew their support, as Lollardy was seen more as a challenge to the established order rather than a religious reform movement.


How was Henry V's army funded for the Conquest of Normandy?

The force was funded by a grateful and patriotic parliament aswell as loans.


What was the sequence of events following Henry V's landing at the Seine estuary?

Caen was besieged and a new administration was set up here before Cherbourg, Pont de l'Arche were seized. The capital of Normandy, Rouen, was besieged brutally and, after surrender, the town was fined 50,000 pounds.


What was the domestic and financial impact of the CoN?

Parliament became gradually reluctant to fund the war, provoking concern about royal finances. The damage to French towns and trade meant that Henry could not fully reap the economic rewards of his conquests: Gascony's normally profitable wine exports were greatly reduced.


What was the background and run-up to the Burgundian Alliance of 1419?

- Louis and John vyed for control of the French court and ran their duchies as independent states.
- Louis, effectively regent at the time, was assassinated on John's orders in 1407.
- In revenge, John was murdered at Montereau in 1419.
- John's heir, Philip the Good allied himself with Henry and also supported Queen Isabella's faction at the French court which was much more likely to come to terms with the English.


What were the terms of the Treaty of Troyes in 1420?

- Henry was to marry Catherine of Valois, any child would have a very strong claim to the French and English thrones
- Henry V was to be seen as heir until Charles VI died, disinheriting the dauphin, Charles
- Normandy was to be seen as separate from France until Charles VI's death, territorial grants were made to English nobles and the Normany nobility (reason for Gloucester's later opposition to territorial concessions to the French)
- English and Burgundian cooperation was to prevent the dauphin from challenging the treaty