Henry VII government and threats to rule Flashcards Preview

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Defeated Richard III in the Battle of Bosworth...when?

August 1485


Claim to throne

Weak - through mother - Margaret Beaufort who was descendant of Edward III.


Dealings with Edward - Earl of Warwick - and John de la Pole - Earl of Lincoln - Richard's nephews

Warwick - sent to Tower of London. Lincoln - professed loyalty and joined King's Council


Lovell and Stafford...

Lord Lovell and Stafford brothers - loyal to Richard - attempted rebellion in spring 1486. Failed - Henry had spies who told him. Lovell fled to Flanders and Staffords sought sanctuary.


Lambert Simnel...

Claimed to be Earl of Warwick - forced battle. Support from Ireland, Margaret of Burgundy and Lincoln. Failed - Henry paraded real Warwick - army confronted Simnel.


Perkin Warbeck

Claimed to be Richard - Duke of York - of tower. Support from France, Burgundy and HRE. Landed at Deal in 1495 - driven away by militia. Welcomed in Scotland and married James IV's cousin - invaded from north but abandoned. Attempted uprising with Cornish but failed - gave himself up 1497.


Nobility important because...

Had power and wealth - pose threat to Henry


Inducements (3 things)

Order of Garter - prestigious. Patronage (titles) in return to loyal service. Summons to King's Council - signs of trust


Sanctions (5 things)

Acts of Attainder - loss right to possess land. Bonds and Recognisances - nobles who offended king paid money - 36 out of 62 families involved in this. Retainers - needed licence and fine if not kept - Lord Burgavenny fined £70,000. Feudal dues over marriage and exploiting estates of wards. Took former royal land (Act of Resumption 1486)


Three ways to strengthen royal finances

Reorganisation of financial administration. Exploiting sources of ordinary revenue. Increasing income from extraordinary revenue.


Yorkshire revolt

1489 - needed money to aid Brittany against France. Yorkshire objected as usually exempt from paying taxes due to cost of defending border from Scots. Earl of Northumberland murdered. Rising crushed but no tax collected.


Cornish uprising

1497 - pay for invasion from north of Warbeck. Rising attracted 15,000 men but crushed at Blackheath by royal army.


Financial administration

First used exchequer to administer crown finance - slow. 1487 - chamber system used which dealt with all income except custom duties. Gave greater control to Henry.


Ordinary revenue (4 things)

Crown lands most important increased by 1486 Act of Resumption and lands taken from those attained. Custom duties dropped to £40,000 a year because of international relations from £70,000 under Edward IVs. Used fines rather than imprisonment to raise money. Feudal dues rose to £6000 by 1507.


Extraordinary revenue (3 things)

Parliamentary taxation. Loans. Money from Church.


Overall income rose to...

£113,000 a year


Central government councillors

Morton - Lord Chancellor. Fox - Lord Privy Seal. Dynham - Lord Treasurer. Five other members


Smaller committees

Court in Requests and Council Learned in Law - handled bonds and recognizances


Regional government

Council of North - defended border. Council of Wales. Ireland - unable to exert control - relied on traditional families.


Local government

Had to rely on nobles to ensure laws being enforced. Developed Justice of Peace - men from lesser nobility more likely to be loyal.



Only met seven times due to role being taken up by Council Learned in Law, avoiding war and Acts of Attainder only being passed at start and end of reign.