Flashcards in Henry VII government and threats to rule Deck (21):
Defeated Richard III in the Battle of Bosworth...when?
Claim to throne
Weak - through mother - Margaret Beaufort who was descendant of Edward III.
Dealings with Edward - Earl of Warwick - and John de la Pole - Earl of Lincoln - Richard's nephews
Warwick - sent to Tower of London. Lincoln - professed loyalty and joined King's Council
Lovell and Stafford...
Lord Lovell and Stafford brothers - loyal to Richard - attempted rebellion in spring 1486. Failed - Henry had spies who told him. Lovell fled to Flanders and Staffords sought sanctuary.
Claimed to be Earl of Warwick - forced battle. Support from Ireland, Margaret of Burgundy and Lincoln. Failed - Henry paraded real Warwick - army confronted Simnel.
Claimed to be Richard - Duke of York - of tower. Support from France, Burgundy and HRE. Landed at Deal in 1495 - driven away by militia. Welcomed in Scotland and married James IV's cousin - invaded from north but abandoned. Attempted uprising with Cornish but failed - gave himself up 1497.
Nobility important because...
Had power and wealth - pose threat to Henry
Inducements (3 things)
Order of Garter - prestigious. Patronage (titles) in return to loyal service. Summons to King's Council - signs of trust
Sanctions (5 things)
Acts of Attainder - loss right to possess land. Bonds and Recognisances - nobles who offended king paid money - 36 out of 62 families involved in this. Retainers - needed licence and fine if not kept - Lord Burgavenny fined £70,000. Feudal dues over marriage and exploiting estates of wards. Took former royal land (Act of Resumption 1486)
Three ways to strengthen royal finances
Reorganisation of financial administration. Exploiting sources of ordinary revenue. Increasing income from extraordinary revenue.
1489 - needed money to aid Brittany against France. Yorkshire objected as usually exempt from paying taxes due to cost of defending border from Scots. Earl of Northumberland murdered. Rising crushed but no tax collected.
1497 - pay for invasion from north of Warbeck. Rising attracted 15,000 men but crushed at Blackheath by royal army.
First used exchequer to administer crown finance - slow. 1487 - chamber system used which dealt with all income except custom duties. Gave greater control to Henry.
Ordinary revenue (4 things)
Crown lands most important increased by 1486 Act of Resumption and lands taken from those attained. Custom duties dropped to £40,000 a year because of international relations from £70,000 under Edward IVs. Used fines rather than imprisonment to raise money. Feudal dues rose to £6000 by 1507.
Extraordinary revenue (3 things)
Parliamentary taxation. Loans. Money from Church.
Overall income rose to...
£113,000 a year
Central government councillors
Morton - Lord Chancellor. Fox - Lord Privy Seal. Dynham - Lord Treasurer. Five other members
Court in Requests and Council Learned in Law - handled bonds and recognizances
Council of North - defended border. Council of Wales. Ireland - unable to exert control - relied on traditional families.
Had to rely on nobles to ensure laws being enforced. Developed Justice of Peace - men from lesser nobility more likely to be loyal.