Henry VIII Flashcards Preview

History Tudors > Henry VIII > Flashcards

Flashcards in Henry VIII Deck (50):

How Henry was different to his father

He disliked business and government and he found reading papers boring
He only intervened in business when it suited him
His impulsive nature affected his decision making
He wanted to re-establish the role of the nobility and become a warrior king like Henry V in 1415 - battle of Agincourt
He preferred to rule by individuals


Henry VIII early actions

Henry inherited £300,000 a councillor form of government and a peaceful foreign policy
Henrys aggressive foreign policy meant he lost his inheritance
The emergence of Wolsey ended the councillor form of government
Council learned in law was abolished by an act of parliament in January 1510
Empson and Dudley were executed
175 bonds were cancelled, which ensured Henry gained popularity with the nobility


Henry’s first marriage

Henry wanted to establish his status among the European powers through marriage
Henry and Catherine of Aragon married on 11th June 1509
The marriage was initially successful but in the mid 1520s Henry regretted the marriage when she couldn’t have any more children
Henry wanted a divorce


Foreign policy in Henry VIII early years

As part as an international alliance against France, Henry led an army there in 1512. It cost a lot and achieved little
Wolsey organised a second expedition in 1513 and they beat the French at the battle of spurs. England captured Tournai and Therouanne.
In 1514 this was sealed with the treaty of Saint Germaine-en-Laye, Henry was given annual compensation for not taking the French throne.

The battle of Flodden 1513 was won against the Scott’s. During the battle the English lost 1,500 men and the Scottish lost 10,000 men including 9 earls, 13 barons, 3 bishops and King James IV


Relationship between Henry VIII and parliament

Henry liked to have an overview of government and he was happy to let others do work for him
Henry needed to use parliament more than other monarchs due to his divorces
Before 1529 parliament was called four times (1510, 1512, 1515 and 1523). Wolsey disregarded parliaments and only called two 1515 and 1523 during his reign between 1514 and 1529.
Parliament was used more in the 1530s


The rise of Wolsey

He was a son of a butcher from Ipswich. He achieved a degree at 15 from Oxford.
He became the burser (treasurer) for the college until a disagreement. Richard Fox gave him patronage at the end of the reign of Henry VII.
New atmosphere under Henry VIII meant Wolsey was noticed by the king and he gained the position of Royal Almoner.
He used his personality and ability to guess what the king wanted to hear.
In addition to the management of the church and conduct of foreign relations, his concerns were the legal system, formulation of policy and political decision making
The Venetian Ambassador - Giustiniani said in 1519 Wolsey was the first person to rule the king and the entire Kingdom


Government under Wolsey

He was not a trained lawyer but as Lord chancellor he was responsible for overseeing the legal system. He has the right to proceed over the court of chancery (court designed the focus on fairness and not strict reading of common law). He used this to proceed over issues like enclosures, contracts and wills but this took a long time.
Star chamber created in 1487 but Wolsey used this to create the centre of government and justice. He used this to administer cheap and fair justice against people who dominated their localities. The number of cases rose from 12 to 120 cases a year. He also used this to set up private lawsuits.
This was so successful that he set up overflow tribunals to deal with the pressure of business. He set up a permanent committee that dealt with cases from the poor.
The privy chamber was an area of government Wolsey didn’t control. The minions distrusted Wolsey as he wanted to reduce their influence. In 1519 Wolsey removed the minions and replaced them with this own supporters l. However in the long term they gained their positions back.
In 1526 Wolsey introduces the Eltham Ordinances in order to reform the privy council. Wolsey reduced the number of men in the privy chamber due to him telling the king to reduce the finances of the chamber. He also managed to remove the groom of the stool Sir William Crompton with his own supporter Henry Norris


Wolsey and finance

Wolsey introduced a subsidy (grant issued by parliament to the king for state needs) in 1523. This imposed a tax of one shilling against the pound for land worth £50 and one shilling in the pound for personal savings and goods.
He set up the national committee with him as head which accessed the wealth of taxpayers so the nations revenue bases became more realistic. This meant Wolsey was able to raise a tax for Henry’s war with France.
Wolsey tried to raise money by the 1525 Amicable Grant. This was called a compulsory gift but it was a tax without parliaments consent and this led to outspread resistance and almost caused a rebellion


Wolsey and the church

Wolsey was appointed cardinal and papal legate (someone appointed by the pope to act on his behalf in that country).
Wolsey did nothing to reduce the amount of anti clericalism in the church. With the invention of the printing press most people were aware of the criticisms. Many were critical of the lives of priests and Wolsey has two illegitimate children and he lived openly with his mistress in 1519.
Strand of objection to the church came with Lollards and Luther’s arguments towards Catholicism in his 95 theses in 1517. His arguments came to England through the merchant traders in the 1520s. William Tyndale furthered the cause as he published aspects of the bible in English
Wolsey made some reforms to the church. As papal legate he ordered bishops to inspect older aspects of religious life. Two dozen monasteries were shut as Wolsey ordered monasteries with under 6 inmates to be closed and amalgamating those under 12. He removed 8 heads of monasteries but failed to establish a school in Ipswich or cardinal college in Oxford.
He was committed to stopping Protestant heresy in England. Public book burnings encouraged. Wolsey encouraged Henry to write a book ‘in defence of the seven sacraments’. He got the title defender of the faith by the pope.
Wolsey was not always praised. He was a pluralist - he was bishop of Winchester, bishop of Durham and the abbot of St Albans (one of the wealthiest monasteries).


Foreign policy - Henry VIII

Henry was at conflict with his council he inherited from his father. They renewed the treaty of etaples in 1510. Henry sent Christopher Bainbridge (archbishop of york) to Rome. This created the holy league with England, Spain, Holy Roman Empire, Venice and the papacy against France. Henry’s 10,000 men expedition was a disaster in 1512, this was a diversion tactic by Holy Roman emperor Maximilian as he captured Naverre. But the 1513 expedition was a success as he captured Tournai and therouanne. But they were described as ungracious dogholes and Henry spent all his money. The success at the Battle of Flodden 1513 brought security against the Scotts.
Deaths of Louis XII (France in 1515), Ferdinand (Aragon 1516) and Maximilian (holy roman emperor 1519) meant Europe was populated with young monarchs to rival Henry. Francis captured Milan and his victory at the Battle of Marginano gave him a greater reputation. Charles was king of Spain and the duke of Netherlands, Henry could not compete with Charles.
Wolsey tried to create a new role for Henry as a peacemaker. Pope Leo X called for a crusade against the Ottomain Empire. Wolsey saw this as an opportunity for England to be the centre of Europe. Wolsey created the treaty of London 1518 and two dozen countries signed and promised to avoid war with each other
In 1519 Charles V was elected holy roman emperor, he hadn’t signed the treaty of London and went to war with France. In 1520
Henry arranged the field of cloth of gold with Francis but he sided with Charles in the 1521 treaty of Bruges. Henry sided with Charles as he wanted to capture France and he was Catherine’s nephew.
England declared war with France in 1522 and achieved nothing but Charles captured Francis at the battle of pavia in 1525 but Charles refused to give him any land
Wolsey entered negotiations with the pope, Venice, Florence and France in a anti Habsburg alliance, the league of Cognae 1526. Their hope was to use peace but pressure to make Charles more reasonable.
Charles’ army took control of the Italian peninsula making the pope prisoner.
England and France formed an alliance in 1527 and were at war with Charles in 1528. The English contribution to the war was minimal and the French were defeated at the battle of landriano 1529.
England were included in the peace of Cambrai 1529 and a fortnight later Wolsey fell from power


Attempts to get the divorce

By the late 1520s Henry wanted a divorce from Catherine of Aragon as she failed to produce a male heir to the throne and Henry wanted to marry Anne Boleyn in 1527
Scriptural arguments - Wolsey said the marriage was invalid as Catherine was married to Henry’s brother Arthur. Wolsey used levictus chapter 20 verse 16.
Henry felt he was punished by god and Catherine said she never consummated the marriage with Arthur
Diplomatic manoeuvres - Wolsey arranged a treaty with France to remove the pope from Charles V’s control. However this failed and the pope remained under the influence of Charles.
Legal efforts - Wolsey was papal legate meaning he could grant the divorce if the hearing was in England. The pope sent cardinal campreggio to slow down proceedings. When the court met in 1529 Catherine refused to recognise the court and she asked the pope too move it to Rome, meaning Wolsey failed to grant the divorce


Wolsey’s failure to get a divorce

Wolsey was no use to the king once he failed to grant the divorce. In 1529 Henry accused Wolsey of premunire (working for the pope instead of the king). Wolsey did not receive support as he was unpopular from the 1523 subsidy and the 1525 amicable grant.
Wolsey was stripped of his titles but became the bishop of york. Wolsey was convinced Anne Boleyn supporters got in the kings head. During the following months the king sent Wolsey gifts.
However in 1530 he was sent to London to face further charges. Wolsey died at Leicester on the way to court on the 29th November 1530.


Thomas More

Wolsey was replaced as Lord chancellor by Thomas more. He was less keen to be pragmatic to achieve what the king wanted. He was a man of principles with humanist beliefs: his book Utopia 1516 mocked the criticisms of the church.
He criticised the land owning elite for exploring tenants. He was sympathetic to Catherine of Aragon. He wanted church reform through gradual progression. He punished any signs of heresy. He was annoyed at Anne Boleyn‘s presence at court. She was a Protestant and sent Henry a copy of William Tyndale’s book ‘the obedience of the Christian man’ 1528 saying the king had authority from god and the book was banned in England.


Pressure on the clergy to support the divorce

1529 parliament was encouraged to voice anti clerical feelings and Thomas Cromwell began collecting evidence of abuses.
In 1530 the revival of medieval law Premunire meant 15 of the clergy were charged with supporting Wolsey over the king.
1531 Henry pardoned the clergy and demanded they call him head of the church but they compromised at head as far as the law of Christ allows.
1532 supplication against the ordinances was a petition calling on the king to deal with corruption of the clergy and Henry demanded the church should agree with this, giving him power to veto church laws and chose bishops. 1532 Cromwell let into the kings inner circle and Thomas More resigned.
1533 Henry secretly married Anne Boleyn who was pregnant.


Pressure on the pope to agree with the divorce

1530 scholars from Oxbridge sent to European universities to find support for the divorce
1532 act of Parliament was passed meaning annates (tax to the pope) were stopped.
Death of Archbishop of Canterbury (William Warham) meant Henry picked Thomas Cranmer to replaced him - he was a reformer.
In 1533 act of restraint in appeals was passed denying the people the right to appeal to the pope against decisions in English church courts.


Thomas Cromwell

By 1532 Cromwell took over court proceedings. He brought an end to the councillor form of government in place since the fall of Wolsey in 1529. He advanced under Wolsey and rose to power through the promise of granting the divorce: he suggested this by Henry making him the head of the church in England.
1532 Cromwell was minister of the kings jewels then chief minister.
1533 he was chancellor of the exchequer and in 1535 he was vicar general (position created by Henry). 1536 he was lord privy seal and principle secretary on the royal council and he became a baron


1529 parliament

Parliament was summoned on 29th November and still existed in 1536. They passed a series of acts they changed the nature of the organisation of the church in England.
Act in restraint of appeals 1533 meant Henry’s divorce case took place in England with the court led by Cranmer and it granted the divorce and made Henry marriage to Anne Boleyn lawful. In July Anne Boleyn was named queen of England and she gave birth to Elizabeth in September.
1534 act of supremacy meant the king was always head of the church in England. Parliament did not have the power to grant this but set up the framework to make it legally enforceable.
Treason act 1534 made denial of the royal supremacy a crime punishable by death. The monarch was in charge of the running of the church. Henry used this power to give Cromwell the title of vicar general in 1535 and he oversaw the running of the church.
This wasn’t a big change due to the Erastian relationship and up until 1536 no doctrinal changes had occurred.
1534 act of succession declared secession to his marriage of Anne Boleyn. To deny the marriage was treason and an oath taken to show individuals acceptance.
The act annexing first fruits and tenths to the crown - meant annates paid to the king. Increased the financial burden on the clergy and strengthened the royal supremacy.


Spread of Protestant ideas

1529 Henry encouraged criticisms of the pope. Led to reformers being safe from prosecution. Anne Boleyn grew in influence and drew Henry to the works of William Tynedale. She protected heretics like Robert Forman. Her influence led to the appointment of Latimer and Shaxton (accused of heresy in 1531) to become bishops and Cranmer as archbishop in 1532.
By 1536 whose in favour of Lutheran reform were established in government. Preachers like Bale, Crome and Barnes spread Protestant ideas in London and Cranmer focused on Suffolk, Essex and Kent.
Reformers drew attention to Proestas Jurisdictions (right to have power over the church) and Protestas Ordinis (right to have spiritual power)
Some conservatives wanted Henry to reject Protestant ideas. Stephen Gardiner wrote De Vera Obedientia (true obedience) which opposed protestant ideas.
Other writers encouraged by Cromwell wrote from a more humanist and Protestant perspective. Thomas Starkey wrote: exhortation to unity and obedience in 1536 claiming Henry should be the leader


Doctrinal reform

1536 vicar general Cromwell (with Cranmer) published the ten articles of faith. It had some Protestant ideas with catholic elements. Article were vague due to Henry’s conservative beliefs.
This was enforced by two sets of instructions to the clergy in 1536 and 1538 ordered them to follow and explain the articles to their parishes.
1537 bishops book published in 1537 offering interpretation and advice.
Book the book and instructions attacked the Catholic Church.
1537 bible published in England and in 1538 Henry’s proclamation ordered every parish to have an English bible.


Swing back to Catholicism

Henry feared catholic allies may invade if he swung too much to Protestantism.
Henry became close to the Howard family and the duke of Norfolk passed the six articles of faith, which were catholic focused.
This was a set back for the Protestants but was seen as temporary but it lead to the resignation of Shaxton and Latimer.
Protestant reformers gained more influence in 1541 when the Howard family lost favour and Catherine Howard was executed in 1542.



In the early 16th century there were 825 religious houses, over 500 were monasteries. Gave people livelihoods as they employees people. By 1540 they were gone.
They were places men and women could devote their lives to saying prayers for the living and dead. Places of shelter for travellers, sources of medicine and food for the poor and education centres for the wealthy. By 16th century this regard has vanished. Number of clergy reduced to 10,000 and some monasteries had fewer than 12 monks. Over time monks had started to live luxurious lives. The decline have Cromwell and Henry the excuse they wanted


Process of the dissolution

In 1534 the act of first fruits and tenths allowed Henry to tax the church.
1535 Cromwell sent four commissioners for the Valor Ecclesiasticus and a second set of commissioners to survey the moral and spiritual standards of monasteries.
1536 parliament passed the dissolution of the smaller monasteries, closing religious houses valued under £200 a year.
1537-8 closures continued and some houses offered bribes. Opposition from catholic monks led to execution.
1539 act for the dissolution of the larger monasteries closed all religious houses except charities.
1540 court of augmentations established Richard Rich as chancellor to handle income and property from dissolved monasteries.


Effects of the dissolution

Henry gained 10% of the entire wealth of the country. More than half of the monastic lands were sold 1543-47, meant the crown lost ability to tax these areas in the future
Most of the land was brought by the gentry or nobility. Growth of the gentry occurred.
Losers of this were the people who lived in the monasteries. Most monks for a one off pension (one monk got annual payments until his death in 1607), 1/5 of monks managed to secure other positions in the church.
Learning was affected as monasteries had built up libraries over generations.
Wealthy people could not longer send children to get educated at monasteries but churches attached to monasteries reopened schools. Few Henry VIII schools built as a result.


Opposition to religious change

People were unclear where all the changes were going.
The moment of realisation came with the 1534 act of supremacy but even then people felt these changes were temporary. Religious conservatives Hereford struggled to mount successful opposition


Resistance at court

Sir Thomas More who was chancellor after 1529 was a high profile opponent of the divorce, marriage to Anne Boleyn , act of succession and changes to the church. He refused to swear the oath declaring Henry as the head of the church and he was sent to the Tower of London. Richard Rich provided evidence and he was sentenced to death in 1535.

Aragonese faction - group who supported Catherine during the divorce. Led by Henry Courtenay, Marquis of Exeter and lords Darcy and Hussey. Group was silenced with influence of Boleyn and Cromwell in 1532. Mary’s exclusion from succession led Darcy and Hussey to the pilgrimage of grace. Courtenay linked to activities of Reginald Pole who was a distant cousin of Yorkist kings, Courtenay was executed in 1539


Resistance in the clergy

John Fisher - stood out against Henry and had no interest in promotion. He believed Henry’s actions with Catherine were wrong and he said that to Henry’s face. Henry took a lenient approach to him until he refused to swear the oath accepting the divorce, he sent him to the Tower of London. Pope wanted him to be cardinal but he was executed for high treason.

Elizabeth Barton - she claimed she had visions from god and in 1528 the vision were about the consequences of divorce. She was looked after by Edward booking who turned visions into a campaign by publishing books and encouraging pilgrimages. Letters sent to More and Fisher, links with Courtenay, Hussey and Carthusian monks in London. She was arrested in 1533 and she was forced to admit the visions were fake and the conspirators were executed in 1534


Monastic resistance

Strongest clerical resistance.
Individual monks preached against the divorce, the supremacy and new changes to the church. The Carthusian Oder however refused to accept the divorce and in 1534 resulted government pressure to agree to a declaration against the authority of the pope. The government could not permit such defiance and the act of treason meant 18 of them were executed


The pilgrimage of grace

1536 riots began in Louth, Lincolnshire. At the height of the rebellion the kings forces faced 40,000.
Most of the motives were religious. The 1536 dissolution of the smaller monasteries, they had provided services and northerners feared they would be poor if monastic lands were sold to southerners. Cromwell attacked saints - Saints like Wilfred were popular in the north.
They were secular motives. Ordinary rebels were concerned about tax and Henry’s attempt to impose the duke of Suffolk in Lincolnshire.
There were arguments that the rebellion was supported by the Aragonise faction (like Darcy and Hussey) who wanted Mary resorted as the heir.


Reform of the government

Royal council - emergence of a more professional privy council. A smaller group of 20 men made up of professions like lawyers and bureaucrats.
Financial management - he ran finances through privy chamber. Cromwell created institutions to work alongside the privy council.
Court of augmentations - controlled land and finance formally under the control of the Catholic Church
Court of general systems - briefly looked after land formally under the Catholic Church, it was merged with the court of augmentations
Court of first fruit and tenths - collected money previously sent to Rome
Court of wards - king collected money from the estate of a minor (under 21) who had a war or inherited land.
Kings advisors - professional administrators needed for new institutions, rather than the untrained nobility


How much did the power of the crown increase in the 1530s

In the 1533 act in restraint of appeals, Cromwell wrote all people owned obedience to the king
However areas in the country where the king did not have much control - places like Durham
But the act of union with wales in 1536 recognised local governments in Wales within the principality


Role and importance of parliament 1530s

In the 1530s Cromwell used parliament to break with Rome, until then parliament had not been used regularly.
Although stature law was the highest form of law the king could rule by proclamation. The 1539 proclamation act meant laws made by parliament were equal to laws by the king.
The 1529 parliament lasted seven years and it became common practise for a law to be passed after three readings in the commons and lords. Also parliament was allowed to pass laws in areas of government and church t hadn’t been allowed to do before.
By the end of the 1530s the king had become king-in-parliament.


Henry VIII later foreign policy

During 1530s European powers focussed on the ottoman Turks and the south. Cromwell focused on the English church and Henry’s new wife. Only attention in Europe was the pope who had excommunicated Henry in 1538.
England needed Protestant allies against catholic superpowers. North Germany supported Protestant ideas and formed the Schmalkaldic league in 1531.
The treaty of Nice 1538 signed between Charles and Francis worried Henry and he was desperate for an alliance. He feared a joint invasion with papal support.
People believe the six articles of faith was to appease catholic powers.
Cromwell arranged the marriage of Henry and Anne of cleaves. In 1539 he took an immediate disliking and called her his Flanders mare. The marriage went ahead in January 1540 but they got divorced in the summer when relations between Charles and Francis broke down


Henry VIII later foreign policy Scotland

James IV of Scotland was seeking relations with France. In 1538 James married Mary of Giuse (relative of the French king). Henry attempted to negotiate with James but he refused.
By 1542 Henry had enough and he sent the duke of Norfolk to arrack the Scots. At Soloway Moss in November 1542 the Scots were defeated and 1,000 prisoners were taken. One week later James V died, leaving Mary the throne.
Treaty of Greenwich 1543 was proposed to threaten relations with Edward marrying Mary but this was rejected. This led to renewal of war. In 1544-45 Edward Seymour took the army to the border and launched a series of attack’, the rough wooing is Scotland. By his death Henry prevented the Scotland and France forming an alliance, but at financial cost


Henry VIII later foreign policy - Europe

Henry and Charles agreed to invade France. In 1544 Henry went to France with an army of 48,000.
Henry managed to capture Boulogne.
Henry returned home in triumph but Francis threatened invasion. Henry put the south coast on full alert.
However the Scots invaded and defeated the English at Ancrum Moor. A separate French force landed on the isle of Wright and Henry’s flagship the Mary Rose was sunk. Attempted French invasion failed in 1545. The treaty of Andres 1546 kept Boulogne in English hands but would be returned to the French in 1554 with the French paying a pension.
Henry gained an element of glory at the cost of £2 million for his foreign policy, paid for with monastic lands and the debasement of the coinage.


Foreign policy - Ireland

1540 the new kingdom of Ireland was declared - Anthony St Leger was the first English governor. Some Irish lords were included in parliament.
To reach further control Henry introduced a policy of plantations where he broke down the old feudal systems, which involved sending thousands of Protestants from England to Ireland.
However the Irish clung on the pope and their catholic faith.


End of Cromwell

After Anne Boleyn execution Cromwell seemed in control. The death of Jane Seymour provided an opportunity to seek a Protestant marriage, however Anne of cleaves marriage was a fiasco.
Cromwell’s enemies took advantage of Anne of cleaves fiasco in 1540. Cromwell was in favour in the early 1540s and he was made earl of Essex. But as he worked on the divorce, Norfolk forced Anne to spread rumours that Cromwell wasn’t carrying tasks quick enough. Norfolk also suggested Cromwell was protecting Protestants at Calais.
Cromwell was executed on trumped up charges of putting forward Protestant ideas and failing to enforce the six articles of faith.
He was executed in 28th July 1540 the same day Henry married Catherine Howard.
However Henry immediately regretted this.


What sort of person was Cromwell

He is usually portrayed as a scheming man. Elton said he was an excellent public servant, reformer of government and someone who believed in the rule of law. Others claim he was a tyrant with spies to get rid of enemies. However only 329 of 883 charged with treason were executed. Cromwell followed the law even when it meant he lost the case.
Cromwell was a Protestant reformer and be pushed for the English bible in 1518. He never enjoyed the exclusive role Wolsey had as Henry became older and wanted more control over policy. Cromwell was instrumental in legislation from 1531-5


Continuing factions 1540-7

The last years of Henry’s reign was dominated by rivalry of the conservative and reform factions. This was made worse by Henry’s refusal to replace Cromwell with another chief minister.
Factionalism suited Henry as he was egotistical and enjoyed people fighting over him. He also enjoyed the discussion which was encouraged by factionalism.


1540 dominant of conservative faction

In 1540 conservative faction was on top.
The return of the six articles of faith and Cromwell had fallen from power whilst they had access to Henry through his new wife Catherine Howard.
However this was short lived. There was a significant age gap between Henry (49) and Catherine (19).
In 1541 evidence showed Catherine Howard committed adultery. Henry had Catherine Howard and her lovers executed in 1542. This meant the duke of Norfolk and the conservative faction lost favour.


Rise of the reform faction

In 1543 the duke of Norfolk started a plot to drive a wedge between Henry and Cranmer. He said Cranmer was a Protestant and heretic. The king dismissed this and put Cranmer in charge of the investigation. Henry also married Catherine Parr in 1543. She was close to the Seymour family and she was a Protestant sympathiser. During her time as queen she invited Protestant Tudors to educate Edward and Elizabeth.
Conservative faction accused the Parr family of heresy in 1546 but the king dismissed this. This ensured Edward and Elizabeth were raised as Protestants as opposed to Mary who was catholic.


Act of secession 1544

Before his death Henry took measures to secure his secession. Henry executed members of the Pole family and the Earl of Surrey for his actions. The secession act 1543 approved by parliament named Edward as the heir then Mary and Elizabeth. Following this would be the Suffolk family.
In October 1546 sir Anthony Denny was made chief gentleman of the privy chamber. He decided who saw the king and gave him access to the dry stamp. Using the stamp the reform faction could legalise any document, including an altered version of the will. The new will supported the old act of secession and strengthened the power of the royal council on Edwards behalf. It was published after Henry’s death in 1547


Fall of the conservative faction

Faction had fallen off by 1546. The arrests of the duke of Norfolk and his son (earl of Surrey) for treason confirmed this.
Surrey added part of Edward I’s royal symbol to his coat of arms. Surrey’s was executed but Norfolk survived as Henry died before the execution but he remained in the Tower of London.
Reform group dominated the sixteen royal council. It was led by the earl of Hereford (Edward Seymour) and he was Edwards uncle.
He was given the position as Lord protector three days after Henry’s death.
He took the title duke of Somerset and promoted supporters of the reform faction.


Church at the end of Henry’s VIIIs reign

Six articles of faith 1539 brought a temporary end to gradual Protestant reforms. It enforced beliefs about transubstantiation and emphasised seven sacraments of the Catholic Church.
The success of the conservative faction and death of Cromwell appeared to make new stage in developments.
Between 1540-7 Protestant ideas were persecuted but not wiped out. Cranmer was still Archbishop and Parr let Protestant scholars like Richard Coxe and John Cheke teach Edward and Elizabeth.
By Henry’s death reformation reached a stalemate. Protestant ideas were suppressed but England was free from papal authority. Bible in English but other catholic practises survived. People said it was Catholicism without the pope. Neither catholics nor Protestants were happy with the church in 1547.


Doctrines at Henry VIII’s death

Catholic elements
Importance of the Eucharist with an emphasis on transubstantiation, only clergy could have the bread and the wine laity could only have the bread, seven sacraments in force, confession to priests widely practised, English clergy could not marry.
Protestant elements
Although services were in Latin the bible was in English from 1538, less emphasis on saints and laity forbidden to go on pilgrimages and the number of saints days reduced to 25.


Religious beliefs in 1547

No separate camps of catholics and Protestants. No guarantee Protestantism would survive (people thought it would be like Lollards).
Many embraced Protestant ideas like the English bible however only the education and devoted had time to discuss theological debates.
Luther died in 1546 however from late 1530s, reformer John Calvin preached in France and Switzerland. His beliefs were more radical. These ideas were reaching England, however many people were reluctant to give up old traditions. People were slow to embrace change unless there was a good reason too.


Trade under Henry VIII

English trade increased in the first half of 16th century. Woollen cloths exports almost doubled during his reign.
Significant increase in exports of hides and tin.
Increase in import of wine, showing spending power of prosperous classes increased. Exports went through London, at the expense of port towns like Bristol and hull.
Biggest change in cloth industry was increase in cheaper fabrics like kersey. However whilst 70% of cloth trade was in English hands from the 1550s much of the trade was in foreign hands before this. Changes to manufacturing were slow despite increasing demand.
Areas that saw the biggest growth in the cloth industry were the West riding of Yorkshire, east anglia and parts of the West Country.Not always secure work and could led to poverty.
Money to be made which increases social status. William Stumpe of Malmesbury became the MP, high sheriff and a wealthy landowner as he was a businessman.
Growth in mining industry. Cornish tin was popular. Lead mining in the high pennies and coal mining in the northeast of England were growing in importance.
Blast furnaces provided an increasing amount of iron ore in the Weald is Sussex and Kent- their number totalled 26 by the middle of the century.


Exploration under Henry VIII

Henry wasn’t increased in exploration. He made no attempt to build on the achievements of Cabot and Bristol merchants at the end of the 15th century. Robert Thurne a Bristol trader continued an Iceland and Newfoundland fishery, however other merchants were unable to win royal support for revenue l.
Sebastian Cabot remained in Spain and only returned under Edward VI


Prosperity and depression under Henry VIII

Population began to grow significantly from 1525 with a decline in the rate of mortality. From 1520s agricultural prices began to rise and therefore farmers income rose enhanced in some cases by engrossing.
Debasement of the coinage created a short term boom in 1544-46 but created a long term cost to living standards.
Bad harvests in 1520-1 and 1527-9 meant food prices doubled during his reign with the effects of the debasement of the coinage.
Over half the population of Coventry had no personal wealth, 1/3 of Yarmouth had no personal wealth.
Unemployment with rural labours forced them to move to urban areas. 5,000 migrants a year added to the population of London.
Many people were made homeless with enclosures


Impact of enclosures - Henry VIII

They were perceived as creating a moral problem for society- forcing people to move homes.
Legislation in 1489 and 1515 were ineffective. Thomas More’s book Utopia 1516 highlighted these problems.
Wolsey launches a commission in 1517 to see the scale of the problem and 188 people found to have enclosed illegally.
It was a regional practise mostly found in east midland villages. However process occurred before 1485 and further anti engrossing legislation had been passed in 1534 with limited effects


Population - Henry VIII

Main cause of poverty was rising population. Put a strain on food supplies - made worse by stagnating wages and competition for labour. Wealthier farmers and landowners benefited from paying low wages.
Society became polarised.
Rich felt the poor were that way due to idleness in the long term it meant stricter measures were taken against begging.