Herbal Medicine & Food/Drug Interactions Flashcards Preview

Pharm Block 1 > Herbal Medicine & Food/Drug Interactions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Herbal Medicine & Food/Drug Interactions Deck (19):

What is Arteminisinin (Qinghaosu) effective for?

- Artemisinin is effective against all the malaria-causing protozoal organisms.

- In 2001 WHO recommended the adoption of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of uncomplicated malaria => used widely in Sub-Saharan African countries as first line treatment


What are common adverse effects/pharmacological interferences of herbal medicines?

- Anti-platelet effects
- Anti-coagulant effects
- Both cause an increase in bleeding risk

- Cytochrome P450, UGTs, P-glycoprotein interferences


What is Ephedra?

- Active components of Ephedra are ephedrine and pseudoephedrine
- In combination with caffeine => facilitates weight loss


What are the adverse effects of Ephedra?

- High Blood Pressure
- Tachycardia
- CNS excitation
- Arrhythmia
- Myocardial infarction
- Stroke

* Banned in dietary supplements in 2004 by FDA


Why do some herbal medicines significantly alter the pharmacokinetic properties of administered drugs

- Herbal medicines share the same drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters
- Herbal medicines can alter the pharmacokinetic properties of administered drugs by inhibiting and/or inducing metabolic enzymes (CYP/UGT) and the drug transporter P-gp)


What is the negative interaction between St. John's Wort and cyclosporine?

St. John's Wort diminishes the concentration of cyclosporine.


What are the protective effects of Milk Thistle?

- Protective effects on the liver and management of liver diseases
- Cirrhosis, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, hepatitis
- Hepatitis => fewer and milder symptoms of liver disease
- Reducing insulin resistance in type 2 diabetics with cirrhosis


What are the uses/positive effects of Glucosamine/Chondroitin (sulfate)?

- Inflammation
- Osteoarthritis => pain relief for moderate-severe osteoarthritis


How does glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate act in osteoarthritis?

- Glucosamine supplements glycosaminoglycans (key component of cartilage)
- Slows the degeneration of cartilage in osteoarthritis


What are the side effects associated with glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate?

- GI complaints
- Headaches
- Pain
- Leg edema
- Allergic reaction
- Drug interaction


What are the claimed uses of Black Cohosh?

-Treatment of menopausal symptoms (hot flashes and mood disturbances)


What are the claimed uses of Gingko?

- Improves memory and concentration
- Alzheimer's disease/ other dementias
* Conflicting data, but some studies have shown improved cognitive performance in healthy adults and dementia patients
- Cardiovascular disease and circulatory disorders
- Tinnitus
- Sexual dysfunction
- Asthma and bronchitis
- Stress


What are the claimed uses of Ginseng?

- Overall health
- Performance
- Stamina enhancer
- Immunostimulation


What are the claimed uses of Ginger?

- Anti-emetic
- treatment of nausea, vomitting, motion sickness


What are the claimed uses of Echinacea?

- Used to treat prevention of colds/flu/other viral infections


What are the claimed uses of St. John's wort?

- Used to treat mild/moderate depression/anxiety
- watch out for concerns of herb-drug interactions


What are the claimed uses of Saw Palmetto?

- BPH => benign prostatic hypertrophy
* studies demonstrate conflicting evidence


What is the Cheese reaction?

- Cheese contains tyramine (a monoamine found in many fermented foods)
- Tyramine is metabolized by MAO (monoamine oxidase)
- Tyramine is metabolism is blocked when taking MAO inhibitor => class of anti-depressants
=> potentiates sympathetic cardiovascular activity by releasing NorEpi=> Hypertensive response


What is the grapefruit juice effect?

- Grapefruit juice can inhibit the intestinal cytochrome => P450 enzyme CYP3A4 (metabolizes many drugs)
- Inhibition of CYP3A4 leads to increased plasma lifetime of drugs to dramatically different degrees