Flashcards in Herbal Medicine & Food/Drug Interactions Deck (19):
What is Arteminisinin (Qinghaosu) effective for?
- Artemisinin is effective against all the malaria-causing protozoal organisms.
- In 2001 WHO recommended the adoption of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of uncomplicated malaria => used widely in Sub-Saharan African countries as first line treatment
What are common adverse effects/pharmacological interferences of herbal medicines?
- Anti-platelet effects
- Anti-coagulant effects
- Both cause an increase in bleeding risk
- Cytochrome P450, UGTs, P-glycoprotein interferences
What is Ephedra?
- Active components of Ephedra are ephedrine and pseudoephedrine
- In combination with caffeine => facilitates weight loss
What are the adverse effects of Ephedra?
- High Blood Pressure
- CNS excitation
- Myocardial infarction
* Banned in dietary supplements in 2004 by FDA
Why do some herbal medicines significantly alter the pharmacokinetic properties of administered drugs
- Herbal medicines share the same drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters
- Herbal medicines can alter the pharmacokinetic properties of administered drugs by inhibiting and/or inducing metabolic enzymes (CYP/UGT) and the drug transporter P-gp)
What is the negative interaction between St. John's Wort and cyclosporine?
St. John's Wort diminishes the concentration of cyclosporine.
What are the protective effects of Milk Thistle?
- Protective effects on the liver and management of liver diseases
- Cirrhosis, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, hepatitis
- Hepatitis => fewer and milder symptoms of liver disease
- Reducing insulin resistance in type 2 diabetics with cirrhosis
What are the uses/positive effects of Glucosamine/Chondroitin (sulfate)?
- Osteoarthritis => pain relief for moderate-severe osteoarthritis
How does glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate act in osteoarthritis?
- Glucosamine supplements glycosaminoglycans (key component of cartilage)
- Slows the degeneration of cartilage in osteoarthritis
What are the side effects associated with glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate?
- GI complaints
- Leg edema
- Allergic reaction
- Drug interaction
What are the claimed uses of Black Cohosh?
-Treatment of menopausal symptoms (hot flashes and mood disturbances)
What are the claimed uses of Gingko?
- Improves memory and concentration
- Alzheimer's disease/ other dementias
* Conflicting data, but some studies have shown improved cognitive performance in healthy adults and dementia patients
- Cardiovascular disease and circulatory disorders
- Sexual dysfunction
- Asthma and bronchitis
What are the claimed uses of Ginseng?
- Overall health
- Stamina enhancer
What are the claimed uses of Ginger?
- treatment of nausea, vomitting, motion sickness
What are the claimed uses of Echinacea?
- Used to treat prevention of colds/flu/other viral infections
What are the claimed uses of St. John's wort?
- Used to treat mild/moderate depression/anxiety
- watch out for concerns of herb-drug interactions
What are the claimed uses of Saw Palmetto?
- BPH => benign prostatic hypertrophy
* studies demonstrate conflicting evidence
What is the Cheese reaction?
- Cheese contains tyramine (a monoamine found in many fermented foods)
- Tyramine is metabolized by MAO (monoamine oxidase)
- Tyramine is metabolism is blocked when taking MAO inhibitor => class of anti-depressants
=> potentiates sympathetic cardiovascular activity by releasing NorEpi=> Hypertensive response