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Flashcards in High yield Deck (12):

Label the agents for A-C

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A) Norepinephrine

B) Epinephrine

C) Isoproterenol

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What are the effects of epinephrine on skeletal muscle, mediated by which receptors?

- Causes muscle tremor (β2)

- Increases K+ uptake by skeletal muscle (β2) = promotes HYPOkalemia and decreased K+ excretion by kidneys


What are the effects of epinephrine on blood glucose, fatty acid levels and renin?

- Elevates blood glucose levels --> enhances liver glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis (β2)

- Increases free fatty levels in blood

- Increases renin release (β1)


What are the major effects of norepinephrine?

Potent cardiac stimulant BUT reduces HR

Potent vasoconstrictor

Increases peripheral vascular resistance and BP; decreases pulse rate

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What are the adrenergic receptor types found in the vascular beds of the skin vessels/mucous membranes, skeletal muscle, renal, and cerebral?

- Skin vessels and mucous membranes (α1)

- Skeletal muscle (α1 and β2)

- Renal, cerebral (D1 and α1)


Clonidine acts on which receptors and produces what effects?

SELECTIVE α2 agonist

- Central effect on α2 receptors in the lower brainstem area --> decrease sympathetic outflow, reduction in BP, BRADYCARDIA

*Guy holding claw weapons w/ 2 lit candles!


Which adrenergic receptors are activated at low doses vs. high doses of Dopamine?

What are the effects?

- At low doses β1 receptors are activated (cardiac activation)

- At high doses α1 receptors are activated (pressor effects)

*Remember D-B-A*


Tyramine is found where?

What is the MOA when administered parenterally and how is it metabolized?

- Found in cheese, cured meats, and smoked/pickled fish

- Releases stored NE from presynaptic adrenergic terminals (if administered parenterally)

- Metabolized by MAO in liver (may lead to increased BP in pt's taking MAO inhibitors)


What is the MOA of Metyrosine?

Inhibits tyrosine hydroxylase; prevents conversion of tyrosine --> L-DOPA


What is the MOA of Guanethidine?

Prevents storage, depletes NE


Which 2 drugs are used in the treatment of chronic urinary retention associated with BPH?

Which receptor do they target?

- Tamsulosin and Silodosin (α1 selective antagonists)

- Greater selectivity for α1= most important α receptor subtype mediating prostate smooth muscle contraction


How does the (-) isomer of Dobutamine differ from the (+) isomer in its effects on α1 receptors?

- Dobutamine is a selective β1 agonist

- Has some α1 activity: the (-) isomer is an agonist at these receptors and the (+) isomer is an α1 antagonist