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Flashcards in High Yield Psych/Soc Deck (100):
1

self schema

self-given label carrying a set of qualities; includes our past and future selves

2

identity

individual components of our self-concept relating to the groups we belong to; dictates behavior in different contexts

3

androgyny

the state of being simultaneously very masculine and very feminine

4

undifferentiated

having low scores on both masculinity and femininty

5

ethnic identity

refers to ethnic group (sharing common ancestry, cultural heritage, and language); largely an identity born into

6

nationality

based on political borders; result of shared history, media, cuisine, and national symbols (ex. country flags)

7

hierarchy of salience

situation dictates identity at any given moment; the more salient the identity the more we conform to the role

8

self-discrepancy theory

made of actual self (the way we see ourselves currently), ideal self (the person we want to be), ought self (represents the way others think we should be); the closer the 3 selves are related, the higher our self esteem

9

self-efficacy

our belief in our ability to succeed; overconfidence occurs when self efficacy is too high

10

learned helplessness

when self-efficacy is diminished past the point of recovery

11

locus of control

how we characterize influence in our lives
> internal locus: one controls one's own fate
> external locus: events are caused by outside influence/luck

12

Freud: psychosexual development

links psychology and human sexuality, made of five stages
1. oral (0-1); fixation leads to excessive dependency
2. anal (1-3); fixation leads to excessive orderliness or sloppiness
3. phallic/Oedipal (3-5): resolution of oedipal/electra conflict
4. latency: libido is sublimated
5. genital (puberty-adult); if previous stages were successfully resolved a person will enter heterosexual relationships

13

Erikson: psychosocial development

theory stems from conflicts throughout life arising from decisions we are forced to make about ourselves/the environment (trust v. mistrust, autonomy v. shame, initiate v. guilt, industry v. inferiority, identity v. role confusion, intimacy v. isolation, generativity v. stagnation, integrity v. despair)

14

Kohlberg: moral reasoning

we progress through six stages (3 phases) in resolving moral dilemmas
1. preconventional: emphasis on moral choice; obedience and self-interest
2. conventional: normal adult moral reasoning in terms of social rules; conformity and law and order
3. postconventional: advanced moral reasoning that may conflict with laws; social contract and universal human ethics

15

Vygotsky's theory

internalization of culture drives cognitive development; zone of proximal development: skills that have not been fully developed and require a more knowledgeable other to accomplish

16

theory of mind

the ability to sense how another's mind works

17

looking-glass self

the reflection of ourselves from others; relies on the ability to recognize how others think about us

18

personality

describes the set of thoughts, feelings, traits, and behaviors characteristic of an individual across time and space

19

psychoanalytic theory

views personality as resulting from unconscious urges/desires

20

id/ego/superego

model proposed by freud
id: basic, primal urges to survive and reproduce; functions according to pleasure principle
ego: mediates between id, superego, and reality; operates based on reality principle
superego: the personality's perfectionist; pride and guilt

21

primary/secondary processes

primary process: id's response to frustration; obtain satisfaction now, not later
secondary process: ego's response to id' takes into account reality to guide or inhibit the id's pleasure principle

22

defense mechanisms

ego's way of resolving anxiety from mediating id and superego; operate unconsciously
> repression (unconscious forgetting), suppression (deliberate forgetting), regression, projection (tested with Rorschach inkblot), rationalization (justification), displacement, and sublimation (channel a socially unacceptable impulse into an acceptable direction)

23

Jung's theory

assumed a collective unconscious that linked humans together; self is intersection fo conscious mind, collective and personal unconscious; viewed personality as influenced by archetypes (images of common experience)
>the persona (face we wear in public), anima (feminine)/animus (masculine), shadow (socially reprehensible thoughts/feelings)

24

Myers-Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI)

personality test based on dichotomies of personality according to Jung (E/I, S/N, T/F, J/P)

25

inferiority complex

Adler believed striving for superiority drives the personality; refers to an individual's sense of incompleteness, imperfection, and inferiority physically and socially

26

creative self

the force by which each individual shapes uniqueness and personality; style of life represents manifestation of creative self (highly influenced by family life); Adler's theory

27

fictional finalism

an individual is motivated more by his expectations of the future than by past experiences; Adler's theory

28

Horney's neurotic needs

Argued personality results from interpersonal relationships; postulated individuals with neurotic personalities are governed by neurotic needs directed at making life/interactions bearable; basis of basic anxiety

29

object relations theory

the way adults relate to others is shaped by their relationships to parents/caregivers in infancy; indicates a need for social contact

30

humanistic theory

focus on the value of individuals taking a person-centered approach; associated with Gestalt therapy: therapists take a holistic view of the self

31

force field theory

Lewin's focus on individuals in the present with little constraint on personality traits; field refers to one's current state of mind which is the sum of forces on the individual; forces either assist in attainment of goals or block paths

32

peak experiences

profound/deeply moving experiences in a person's life that have important and lasting effects on the individual

33

personal construct psychology

Kelly believed individuals construct schemes of anticipation of what others will do; individuals integrate new constructs into existing ones to understand their environment

34

client-centered, person-centered, and nondirective therapy

developed by Carl Rogers who believed people can control their behavior; person-centered therapy allows clients to reflect, make choices, and generate solutions to reduce tension between various selves

35

unconditional positive regard

a therapeutic technique developed by Carl Rogers where the therapist accepts the client completely and expresses empathy to promote positive therapeutic environment

36

type and trait theorists

type theorists create a scheme of personality types, trait theorists describe individual personality based on a cluster of behaviors
ex. type A and type B personality

37

PEN model

model under trait theory involving Psychoticism (nonconformity), Extraversion (tolerance for social interaction, Neuroticism (measure of emotional arousal in stressful situations)

38

Big Five

expansion of PEN model; includes openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (OCEAN)

39

cardinal, central, and secondary traits

developed by Gordon Allport; cardinal are traits which a person organizes their life (not everyone has these), central traits are major characteristics of personality, secondary traits are characteristics that have a limited occurrence

40

functional autonomy

when a behavior continues despite satisfaction of the drive that originally created the behavior (ex. hunting to eat vs hunting for sport)

41

behaviorist theory

based on concepts of operant conditioning; personality is a reflection of behaviors that have been reinforced over time

42

social cognitive theory

focuses on how our environment influences behavior and how we interact within that environment; past behavior dictates future behavior; reciprocal determinism is a central idea

43

reciprocal determinism

Bandura's idea that our thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and environment all interact with each other to determine our actions in a given situation (part of social cog perspective)

44

biological perspective

personality can be explained as a result of genetic expression in the brain

45

habituation and dishabituation

learned responses may change over time depending on frequency and intensity; habituation refers to a decrease in response, dishabituation is the recovery of a response to a stimulus after habituation

46

associative learning

creation of a pairing between two stimuli or between behavior and response; examples are classical and operant conditioning

47

classical conditioning

associative learning where an unconditioned stimulus, producing a reflex response (unconditioned response), is paired with a signaling stimulus to create a conditioned stimulus and a conditioned reflex response (ex. Pavlov's salivating dogs); aka acquisition

48

generalization vs discrimination

generalization is a broadening effect where similar stimuli both produce a conditioned response; discrimination is when an organism learns to distinguish between two similar stimuli

49

operant conditioning

associated with Skinner (the father of behaviorism) and links voluntary behaviors with consequences to alter frequency of the behaviors; uses positive and negative reinforcement and positive and negative punishment

50

positive and negative reinforcement

promotes continuation of behavior
>positive reinforcement: addition of an incentive (ex. money)
>negative reinforcement: removal of an unpleasant stimulus; escape learning (reduction of unpleasantness of something that currently exists) and avoidance learning (prevention of unpleasantness for something that hasn't happened yet)

51

positive and negative punishment

aimed to prevent/stop behavior
>positive punishment: the addition of an unpleasant consequence to reduce behavior (ex. spanking a child for talking back)
>negative punishment: the reduction of a behavior by removal of a stimulus (ex. a child throws a tantrum so the parent forbids the child to watch tv)

52

primary vs conditioned reinforcers

classical and operant conditioning can work together
>primary reinforcer: something that elicits a natural response (ex. fish for dolphin)
>conditioned/secondary reinforcer: a neutral stimulus that is paired with the primary (ex. clicker with fish)
>discriminative stimulus: present in the operant conditioning paradigm and signals a reward is potentially available (ex. presence of dolphin trainer)

53

reinforcement schedules

(in order of decreasing effectiveness)
1. variable ratio (VR) reinforcement happens after a varying number of performances (ex. gambling; continuous response)
2. fixed ratio (FR) reinforces a behavior at a specific number of performances
3. variable interval (VI) reinforcement occurs the first time that behavior is performed after an interval, the interval constantly changes
4. fixed interval (FI) reinforcement occurs at the first instance of behavior after a set time interval

54

shaping

process of rewarding increasingly specific behaviors (a type of operant conditioning)

55

instinctive drift

animals are predisposed to learn/not learn behaviors based on natural ability and instinct; predisposition is described as preparedness; instinctive drift occurs when there is difficulty overcoming instinctual behaviors

56

observational learning

the process of learning a new behavior or gaining information by watching others (ex. Bandura's Bobo doll); mirror neurons play a role (located in frontal and parietal lobes and fire when an individual performs an action and when an individual observes an action)

57

encoding
(automatic vs controlled processing)

first step in forming a new memory
>automatic processing: information gained without effort
>controlled processing: active memorization

58

encoding strategies

>visual (weakest), acoustic, and semantic (strongest)
>maintenance rehearsal (repetition), mnemonics, method of loci (associate items with a location on a route), peg-word (associates numbers with items), chunking/clustering (forming groups in a large list)

59

sensory memory
(whole vs partial reporting)

a form of storing memory; consists of iconic (visual) and echoic (auditory) memory; fades very quickly
>whole report: recalling a few items flashed on a screen
>partial report: recalling a specific row of items flashed on a screen

60

short-term memory

memories may fade within 30secs without rehearsal; limited in capacity to seven items (the 7±2 rule); mainly housed in the hippocampus which can consolidate short-term into long-term

61

working memory

related to short-term memory and is supported by hippocampus, frontal, and parietal lobes; allows us to integrate short-term memory, attention, and executive function to manipulate information

62

long-term memory
(implicit vs explicit)

information may be consolidated by elaborative rehearsal; memories will eventually move back to the cerebral cortex
>implicit: non-declarative/procedural; consists of skills and conditioned responses
>explicit: declarative; consists of memories requiring conscious recall. *INCLUDES semantic (facts) and episodic (experiences) memories*

63

retrieval/recall

the process of demonstrating something has been learned and retained

64

recognition

a retrieval process; identifying a piece of information that was previously learned (easier than recall)

65

relearning

a retrieval process; learning something the second time through is quicker because information has been stored even if it is not ready for recall

66

context vs state dependent effects

>context effects: memory is aided by being in the same physical location where encoding occurred
>state dependent effect: memory is aided by being in the same mental state as when the encoding occurred (ex. intoxicated)

67

primacy and recency effect

the tendency to remember early and late items from a list; primacy effect is stronger

68

Alzheimer's disease and Korsakoff's syndrome

>Alzheimer's: progressive dementia due to misfolded proteins; retrograde memory loss (lose recent memories first)
>Korsakoff's: memory loss caused by thiamine deficiency; retrograde amnesia (loss of recent memories) AND anterograde amnesia (can't form new memories); includes confabulation (generating vivid fabricated memories)

69

agnosia

the loss of the ability to recognize objects, people, or sounds (usually only one of the three); may result from stroke

70

interference effect on memory
(proactive vs retroactive)

a retrieval error caused by existence of other similar info
>proactive: old info interferes with new learning
>retroactive: new info causes forgetting of old info

71

false memories

>confabulation: generating vivid fabricated memories
>misinformation effect: memories are affected by outside influencers
>source-monitoring error: confusion between semantic and episodic memory; remember the details of an event but confuse the context under which the details were gained

72

motivation
(extrinsic vs intrinsic)

the driving force behind actions
>extrinsic: based on external rewards or punishments
>intrinsic: motivation that comes from within oneself

73

instinct theory of motivation

people are motivated to do certain behaviors based on evolutionarily programmed instincts (ex. thumb sucking as an instinctual response to stress in babies)

74

arousal theory of motivation

people perform actions to maintain an optimal level of arousal (Yerkes-Dodson law)

75

drive reduction theory of motivation

motivation is based on the goal of eliminating uncomfortable states of internal tension

76

primary vs secondary drives

>primary: motivate people to sustain bodily processes in homeostasis; control homeostasis via negative feedback
>secondary: drives not directly related to biological processes; includes emotions like desire for achievement

77

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

motivation is described as how we allocate our energy and resources to satisfy needs; certain needs yield greater influence on motivation
>physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, self-actualization

78

self-determination theory of motivation

a need-based motivational theory that emphasizes three universal needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness

79

incentive theory of motivation

behavior is motivated by the desire to pursue rewards and avoid punishments

80

expectancy-value theory of motivation

amount of motivation needed to reach a goal is the result of both individual expectation of success and degree of value of achieving the goal

81

opponent-process theory of motivation

explains motivation for drug use; as drug use increases, the body counteracts the effects leading to tolerance and uncomfortable withdrawal

82

three elements of emotion

physiological response (arousal stimulated by autonomic nervous system), behavioral response (facial expressions/body language), cognitive response (subjective interpretation of the feeling being experienced)

83

universal emotions

the argument that emotions are a result of evolution; includes happiness, sadness, contempt, surprise, fear, disgust, and anger

84

James-Lange theory of emotion

stimulus triggers physiological arousal, secondary response is the cognitive labeling of the emotion

85

Cannon-Bard theory of emotion

stimulus triggers both physiological arousal and cognitive emotion simultaneously, the secondary response is an action

86

Schachter-Singer theory of emotion
(aka cognitive arousal or two-factor theory)

stimulus triggers physiological arousal and context appraisal, secondary response is the cognitive labeling of emotion

87

cognitive appraisal
(primary and secondary)

the subjective evaluation of a situation that induces stress
>primary: initial evaluation of the environment which identifies the stress as irrelevant, benign-positive, or stressful (determines if a negative association exists)
>secondary: occurs if primary reveals a threat and evaluates whether the organism can cope with the stress (deals with intensity of stress intensity)

88

distress vs eustress

>distress: occurs when experiencing unpleasant stressors
>eustress: a result of positive conditions (ex. graduating college); any event that causes a person to adapt their lifestyle leads to stress
stress can be measured in life change units on the social readjustment rating scale

89

general adaptation syndrome (physiological response to stressor)

three distinct stages
1. alarm: initial reaction to a stressor, activates sympathetic nervous system, hypothalamus stimulates pituitary to release ACTH triggering release of cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine
2. resistance: continuous release of hormones allows sympathetic nervous system to remain engaged to fight the stressor
3. exhaustion: the body can no longer maintain elevated response (may lead to breakdown/burnout)

90

three types of neurons

sensory (afferent) transmit info from receptors to brain, motor (efferent) transmit info from brain to muscles, interneurons found between other neurons

91

central vs peripheral nervous system

>CNS: brain and spinal cord
>PNS: nerve tissue and fibers that connects the CNS to the rest of the body; divided into somatic and autonomic

92

somatic vs autonomic nervous system

divisions of the PNS
>somatic: sensory and motor neurons controlling voluntary movements
>autonomic (ANS): regulates involuntary muscles such as heartbeat, respiration, digestion, and secretion; regulates body temp; automatic, unconscious control; divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic

93

sympathetic vs parasympathetic nervous system

divisions of the ANS
>sympathetic: stressed state, fight or flight response, increase HR and blood glucose, decrease digestion; main hormone is epinephrine
>parasympathetic: resting state, reduces HR and manages digestion; main hormone is acetylcholine

94

anterograde amnesia

inability to establish new long-term memory

95

retrograde amnesia

memory loss of events that transpired prior to brain injury

96

dominant vs nondominant hemispheres

dominant hemisphere is usually the left (regardless of handedness) and serves analytic function (language, logic, math); nondominant hemisphere is usually the right and is associated with creativity, music, and spatial processing

97

innate vs learned behavior

innate behavior is genetically programmed as a result of evolution and is displayed regardless of environment/exposure; learned behavior is based on experience and environment

98

neurulation in prenatal development

produces the nervous system
1. ectoderm overlying the notochord furrows forming a neural groove
2. neural crest cells migrate throughout the body to form different tissues
3. the furrow closes to form the neural tube which creates the CNS
4. alar plate becomes sensory neurons, basal plate becomes motor neurons

99

primitive reflexes

displayed in babies and disappear with age; rooting reflex, moro reflex, babinski reflex (spreading of toes when heel is stimulated), grasping reflex

100

developmental milestones

gross motor skills progress from head to toe and from the core outward
social skills start off parent-oriented, then self-oriented, then other-oriented