Logical Fallacies Flashcards Preview

School > Logical Fallacies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Logical Fallacies Deck (24):
1

strawman

misrepresenting someone's argument to make it easier to attack and present your own position

2

slippery slope

asserting that if we allow A to happen, Z will consequently happen too, therefore we should prevent A

3

special pleading

making exceptions once a claim is shown to be false; inventing ways to cling to old, false beliefs

4

the gambler's fallacy

the mistaken belief that if something happens more frequently than normal during a given period, it will happen less frequently in the future

5

black or white

when two alternative states are presented as the only possibilities, when in fact more possibilities exist; either/or presented

6

false cause

presuming a real or perceived relationship between things means one is the cause of the other (mistaking correlation for causation)

7

ad hominem

attacking the opponent's character or personal traits in an attempt to undermine their argument

8

loaded question

asking a question with an assumption built into it so that it can't be answered without appearing guilty

9

bandwagon

using the popularity of an idea to claim validity

10

begging the question

a circular argument in which the conclusion is included in the proposition

11

appeal to authority

claiming that because an authority thinks something is true, it must be true

12

appeal to nature

making the argument that because something is 'natural' it is valid, justified, good, or ideal

13

composition/division

assuming what's true about one part of something has to be applied to all parts of it

14

anecdotal

using personal experience or an isolated example instead of valid argument, especially to dismiss statistics

15

appeal to emotion

manipulating an emotional response in place of a valid argumen

16

tu quoque

responding to criticism with more criticism instead of a valid argument

17

burden of proof

saying that the burden of proof lies with someone else to disprove, not with the person making the claim (teapot in space ex)

18

no true scotsman

seeing a criticism as valid, new criteria are employed to dissociate one's argument; dismiss relevant criticisms

19

texas sharpshooter

cherry-picking data clusters to suit an argument or finding a pattern to fit a presumption

20

the fallacy fallacy

presuming a claim to be wrong because a fallacy has been committed

21

personal incredulity

saying that because one finds something difficult to understand, it is not true

22

ambiguity

using double meaning to mislead or misrepresent the truth

23

genetic

judging something as good or bad based on where i comes from, or from whom

24

middle ground

saying that a compromise between two extremes must be the truth