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Flashcards in hip and knee mechanics Deck (22)
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What are the major motions of the hip?

FlexionAbductionAdductioninternal and external rotation


Dysfunction of tensor fascia lata

Frequently seen with lateral hip and knee pain


Tightness of adductor muscles

Frequently results in inferior pubic symphysis shear - dysfxn of pubic symphysisFrequently seen with persistent groin pulls


Tightness of piriformis muscle

Tightness will decrease hip internal rotation and may irritate the sciatic nerve


Hip disfunction

Associated with decreased hip extension due to - decreased hip extension due to psoas major mm - decreased internal rotation due to piriformis m, tensionResponds well to OMM, muscle energy techniques


Acetabular labrum Tear

Symptoms:sharp, deep pain anterior thigh/groinworsens when rising from a seated to standing positioncan click with motion


Hip Pearls

Compare injured and uninjured sideExamine joint above and below injured area for other potential problemsWith intraarticular hip problems, the first motion lost is typically internal rotation


Motions of the Knee

Flexion and ExtensionMinor gliding motions of tibial plateau include:anterior/posterior glidingmedial/lateral flidinginternal rotation with posterolateral glidingexternal rotation with anteromedial gliding


Knee "screw home" mechanism

Allows lower extremity to fxn as a solid columnWith knee fully extended the knee passively locks due to medial rotation of the femoral condyles on the tibial plateau


Knee Restrictions

Restrictions involving the gliding motions are frequently associated with somatic dysfxn


History of subjective knee instability

Sometimes indicates meniscal tear


Knee joint locking

Can indicate a very significant meniscal tear - indication for an MRI and probable surgery - can have less severe meniscal tear without joint locking


Palpating menisci

Lateral joint line tenderness, or palpable TART - can indicate lateral meniscal tearMedial joint line tenderness, or papable TART - can indicate medial meniscal tearTenderness in popliteal fossa may indicate a tear of the posterior horn of either meniscus


Terrible Triad

AKA Unholy triad. O'Donoghue's triad - MCL, medial meniscus, and ACL tear


Flexors of the leg include

Biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, popliteus, and gastrocs


Dysfxn of leg flexors

Associated with posterior knee painExcessive tightness will limit knee extension


Extensors of the leg include

Rectus femorisvastus lateralisvastus medialisvastus intermedius


Dysfxn of leg extensors

Associated with anterior knee painExcessive tightness will limit knee flexion


Movement of the fibular head

Allows for anterolateral and posteromedial gliding of fibular headFibular Reciprocal MotionFibular head moves in combo with lateral malleolus - when head moves anteriorly, lat malleolus glides posteriorly and vice versaInversion ankle sprains may result in restriction of lateral malleolus and fibular head


Fibular head restrictions

Often with hamstring strains and injuries to lateral collateral ligamentIf restriction persists despite treatment, may be associated with injury to lateral meniscus


Somatic dysfxn of the knee

Often associated with restriction of tibiofibular joint - lateral knee pain - common fibular nerve runs near herePosterior fibular head may affect fxn of this nerve and contribute to foot drop


Lower limb arterial supply

Mostly from femoral aa - affected by sympathetics from T10-L3\ - somatic dysfxn affecting these levels can increase sympathetic tone to lower limb and decrease aa supply