Hip, buttock and thigh Flashcards Preview

Anatomy of the limbs > Hip, buttock and thigh > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hip, buttock and thigh Deck (46):
1

What are the 2 major regions of the lower limb?

Gluteal region (part of the trunk)
Free lower limb (thigh, leg and foot)

2

What are the 3 parts of the pelvis that fuse during development?

Ischium
Ilium
Pubis

3

What are the 2 layers of fascia of the lower limb?

Superficial fascia- subcutaneous tissue.
Deep fascia- in the thigh, fascia lata: extends like a stocking beneath the skin from hip to knee.

4

What is the iliotibial tract?

A lateral thickened area of fascia in the lower limb.

5

What are the compartments of the lower limb?

Gluteal compartment
Anterior compartment of thigh
Medial compartment of thigh
Posterior compartment of thigh

6

What muscles are contained within the gluteal region?

Extensors, abductors and external rotators of the hip.

Gluteal muscles:
-Gluteus maximus
-Gluteus medius
-Gluteus minimus
-(Tensor fasciae latae)

Short external (lateral) rotators of the hip:
-Piriformis
-Obturator internus
-The gemelli (sup. and inf.)
-Quadratus femoris

7

What is the main function of the lateral rotator muscles in the gluteal region?

Stabilise the hip joint.

8

What muscles are contained within the anterior compartment of the thigh?

Hip flexors and knee extensors.

Pectineus
Ilio-psoas
Tensor fasciae latae
Sartorius
Quadriceps femoris:
-Rectus femoris
-Vastus medialis
-Vastus intermedius
-Vastus lateralis

9

What muscles are contained within the medial compartment of the thigh?

Hip adductors.
Adductor longus
Adductor brevis
Adductor magnus
Gracilis
Obturator externus

10

What muscles are contained within the posterior compartment of the thigh?

Knee flexors and hip extensors.
'The hamstrings'.
Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus
Biceps femoris

11

What are the borders of the femoral triangle?

Inguinal ligament superiorly
Adductor longus medially
Sartorius (medial border) laterally

12

What does the femoral triangle contain?

Femoral nerve
Femoral artery
Femoral vein

13

What is the adductor (Hunter's/subsartorial) canal formed by?

Vastus medialis (anteriorly)
Adductor longs and adductor magnus (posteriorly)
Sartorius (medially)

14

What does the adductor canal contain?

Femoral artery
Femoral vein
Saphenous nerve

15

What does the greater sciatic foramen contain?

Structures passing from the pelvis to the thigh.

16

What does the lesser sciatic foramen contain?

Structures passing from the pelvis to the perineum.

17

What is the significance of the 'safe area' in the lower limb?

Avoid hitting the sciatic nerve (and superior gluteal nerve and vessels) during intramuscular injection.

18

What does the sciatic nerve supply?

The hamstring muscles
Muscles below the knee

19

What is the path of the sciatic nerve?

Passes from pelvis to buttock via greater sciatic notch/foramen.
In the buttock, lies in the inferior and medial quadrant.
Passes along posterior aspect of thigh.
Divides into the tibial nerve and the common perineal nerve.

20

What type of joint is the hip joint?

Synovial ball and socket joint, between head of femur and the acetabulum.

21

Where does the blood supply of the head of the femur run?

Within the capsule of the hip joint.

22

What are the 2 possible classifications of hip fractures?

Intracapsular
Extracapsular

23

What are the ligaments of the hip joint?

Named in relation to the pelvic bone to which they attach proximally.
Ilio-femoral ligament
Pubo-femoral ligament
Ischio-femoral ligament
Ligament of the head of the femur

24

What are the possible movements at the hip joint?

Flexion (forward movement)
Extension (backward movement)
Abduction
Adduction
Lateral rotation
Medial rotation

25

What are the possible movements at the knee joint?

Flexion (backward movement)
Extension (forward movement)

26

What are the possible movements at the ankle joint?

Dorsiflexion (extension, raising the toes)
Plantarflexion (flexion, pointing the toes/lifting the heels)

27

What does the femur articulate with?

Proximal end (convex head) articulates with hip bones at hip joint (acetabulum)
Distal end (2 condyles) articulates with tibial bone of leg (plateau region, articulation is planar so weight is transferred from the hip down vertically) and patella articulates with distal anterior end of femur.

28

What type of bone is the patella?

Sesamoid bone, formed within a tendon

29

What is the most common type of fracture of the femur?

At the femoral neck.
Can also be intertrochanteric.

30

What is the biggest muscle in the body?

Gluteus maximus

31

What is the role of gluteus maximus?

Extends the hip.
Involved in flexion of the knee e.g. when running or jumping.
Allows you to sit down gradually.

32

Where does the majority of the gluteus maximus muscle insert?

Ilio-tibial tract of fascia lata.
Also attaches to gluteal tuberosity.
Small attachment to iliac crest, the rest to sacrum and fascia of the region

33

What are the attachments of gluteus medius and minimus muscles?

Broad, fibres converge and attach to greater trochanter of femur
Medius is more superficial

34

What are the functions of gluteus medius and minimus?

Abduction and stabilisation of the hip joint and pelvis- pull femoral head into acetabulum.
Lateral rotation at hip.

35

What are the attachments of the piriformis muscle?

Sacral region to greater trochanter of femur.

36

What are the attachments and functions of psoas major and iliacus muscles?

Psoas major comes off lateral bodies of lumbar vertebrae. Its fibres converge and it passes under inguinal ligament to join fibres of iliacus, which has a broad attachment on the internal surface of the plate of the iliac bone. Together they form a short tendon which attaches to the lesser trochanter.
Major flexors of the hip joint.

37

What are the attachments and functions of the sartorius muscle?

Strap muscle comes off ASIS, crosses anteriorly and inferiorly across knee joint and attaches below the knee. Involved in flexion of hip and knee joints.
Legs crossed.

38

Where is the safe area for i.m injection in the lower limb?

Triangle between tubercle of iliac crest and ASIS.
Enters gluteus medius, not maximus- avoid hitting nerves and vessels.

39

Where does the ligament of the head of femur attach?

Head of femur at the fovea.

40

What can a fracture at the neck of the femur lead to?

Avascular necrosis of the femoral head due to distal nature of blood supply (lateral and medial circumflex arteries).

41

What is the path of the femoral artery and vein?

Pass from the anterior compartment to the posterior of the knee (the popliteal fossa) through the hiatus of adductor magnus muscle. After passing posteriorly, become the popliteal artery and vein.

42

What are the superficial veins of the lower limb?

Long (great) saphenous vein.
Joins the femoral vein at the sapheno-femoral junction.

43

What are the deep veins of the lower limb?

Popliteal vein
Femoral vein
External iliac vein
Sapheno-femoral junction
Venae comitantes of the profunda femoris artery

44

What does the femoral nerve supply?

Anterior compartment of thigh.

45

What does the obturator nerve supply?

Medial (adductor) compartment of thigh.

46

Where do nerves to the lower limb emerge from?

Lumbosacral plexus.