Flashcards in Knee, leg, ankle and foot Deck (54):
What are the knee extensors in the anterior compartment of the thigh that act on the knee joint?
Tensor fasciae latae
Quadriceps femoris (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis)
What are the bones of the knee, leg, ankle and foot?
Bones of the foot (calcaneus (ankle), talus, navicular, cuboid, cuneiforms, metatarsals, distal and proximal phalanges)
Which of the hip adductors of the medial compartment of the thigh acts across the knee joint?
What are the muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh?
Act across the knee joint for flexion of the knee.
What are the muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg?
Extensor digitorum longus
Extensor hallucis longus
Supplied by deep peroneal nerve and anterior tibial artery.
How are the distal tendons of the digitorum muscle arranged?
4 tendons act on all digits except for hallucis.
What are the muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg?
Supplied by superficial peroneal nerve and peroneal artery.
What is the role of muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg?
Evert the foot and can contribute to dorsiflexion.
What is the role of muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg?
Extend (dorsiflex) the foot at the ankle joint.
Extend the digits.
What are the muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg?
Ankle plantar flexors.
-Flexor digitorum longus
-Flexor hallucis longus
Supplied by tibial nerve and posterior tibial artery.
What are the attachments of gastrocnemius?
Two heads attach at lateral and medial epicondyles of the femur (across knee joint).
Common tendon attaches at posterior of calcaneus, contributing to calcaneus (Achilles) tendon.
What are the attachments of soleus?
Broad attachment on tibia, fibula, and interosseous membrane.
Joins 2 heads of gastrocnemius to form calcaneus tendon (Achilles).
What forms the triceps surae?
2 heads of gastrocnemius muscle
1 head of soleus muscle
How many muscular layers are there in the sole of the foot?
What is the purpose of intrinsic muscles of the sole of the foot?
For most people, generally act as shock absorbers and adjust the foot to uneven surfaces.
What are muscles of the sole of the foot supplied by?
What are the muscles of the dorsum of the foot?
Extensor digitorum brevis
Extensor hallucis brevis
What is the extensor digitorum brevis muscle supplied by in the dorsum of the foot?
Common peroneal nerve
What is the popliteal fossa?
Diamond shaped space posterior to the knee joint.
What are the boundaries of the popliteal fossa?
Lateral head of gastrocnemius
Medial head of gastrocnemius
Skin and fascia
What does the popliteal fossa contain?
Popliteal artery and vein
Tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve
Short saphenous vein
Popliteal lymph nodes
What is the largest joint in the body?
What type of joint is the knee joint?
Hinge-type synovial joint, superficial, with some gliding, rolling and rotation.
What are the ligaments of the knee joint?
Anterior cruciate ligament
Posterior cruciate ligament
Medial (tibial) collateral ligament
Lateral (fibular) collateral ligament
What are the menisci of the knee joint?
C-shaped cartilaginous structures that help to form articular surface between tibia and fibula.
What are the structures involved in the extensor mechanism of the knee joint?
What are the bursae of the knee joint?
Lubrication/cushioning of the joint. Isolated bags of synovial fluid, or extensions of synovial fluid of the joint.
What is bursitis?
Inflammation of a bursa- very painful.
What type of joint is the proximal tibio-fibular joint?
Plane-type synovial, but capsular ligaments limit movement.
What type of joint is the distal tibio-fibular joint?
What ligaments of the ankle joint are commonly sprained?
Lateral ligaments (3 parts- anterior talo-fibular, posterior talo-fibular, calcaneo-fibular), damaged by over-inversion.
What ligament of the ankle joint is less commonly damaged in sprains?
Tibio-calcaneal (deltoid) ligament- broader and tougher.
What structure is the weight-bearing of the ankle joint done by?
Talus, via its superior articulation with tibia.
Fibula is not weight-bearing, but its distal lateral malleolus, with tibia's medial malleolus, forms the square socket of the ankle joint.
What are the arches of the foot?
Medial longitudinal arch
Lateral longitudinal arch
Transverse metatarsal arch
What contributes to the formation and stability of the arches of the foot?
The shape of the foot bones and how they fit together.
What are some of the major structures maintaining the arches of the foot?
Ligaments and long tendons, intrinsic muscles of the foot.
Flexor hallucis longus tendon.
What are the arteries of the knee, leg and foot?
Popliteal artery- genicular (knee) branches.
Popliteal trifurcation (anterior tibial artery, posterior tibial artery, peroneal artery).
At the ankle:
-Posterior tibial artery- sole of the foot via the medial and lateral plantar arteries.
-Dorsalis pedis artery (continuation of anterior tibial artery) supplies the dorm of the foot and the digits.
What are the superficial veins of the knee, leg and foot?
Dorsal venous arch
Long saphenous vein
Short saphenous vein
Perforating veins to the deep system (mainly in calf)
What are the deep veins of the knee, leg and foot?
Deep calf veins- venae comitantes of arteries
External iliac vein
Venae comitantes of the profunda femoris artery
What is the motor segmental supply to the hip flexors?
What is the motor segmental supply to the hip extensors?
What is the motor segmental supply to the knee extensors?
What is the motor segmental supply to the knee flexors?
What is the motor segmental supply to the ankle dorsiflexors?
What is the motor segmental supply to the ankle plantarflexors?
What is the sensory segmental supply of the knee, leg and foot?
L3 to the knee, L4 to the floor.
L5 to the big toe.
S1 to the lateral side of the foot and the sole of the foot.
What is the motor peripheral supply to the knee extensors?
What is the motor peripheral supply to the hamstrings?
What is the motor peripheral supply to the posterior compartment of the leg and foot intrinsics?
What is the motor peripheral supply to the anterior and lateral compartments of the leg?
Common peroneal nerve
What does the tibial nerve divide into behind the medial malleolus?
Medial plantar nerve
Lateral plantar nerve
What does the tibial nerve supply?
All intrinsic muscles of the foot except extensor digitorum brevis.
What is the sural nerve formed from and what can it be used for?
Branch of the tibial nerve
Smaller branch from the common peroneal nerve
Can be used in nerve repair