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Anatomy of the Limbs > Hip, buttock and thigh > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hip, buttock and thigh Deck (81)
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1

What happens to the lower limb during development?

It twists during develop and you get a permanent pronation at the mid-thigh level

2

What specific words are given to the flexion and extension of the foot?

Dorsiflexion (pointing toes up)
Plantarflexion (pointing toes down)

3

What are the three parts of the pelvis (hip bone)?

Ilium
Ischium
Pubis

4

What marks the ends of the iliac crest?

ASIS and PSIS

5

What is the name given to the surface of the hipbone that articulates with the sacrum?

Auricular Surface

6

What lies in between the greater and lesser trochanters?

Intertrochanteric crest

7

What short ridge is found just inferior to the lesser trochanter?

Gluteal tuberosity

8

A longer ridge downwards along the shaft of the humerus and originates from the short ridge below the lesser trochanter. What is this long ridge called?

Linea aspera

9

Which tubercle is found just superior to the medial epicondyle?

Adductor tubercle

10

What is the anterior protrusion between the ilium and the pubis called?

Iliopubic eminence

11

What are the two notable parts of the ischium onto which ligaments attach?

Tuberosity and spine

12

Which pelvic bones make up the acetabulum?

All three of them (ilium, ischium and pubis)

13

What notches are present on the posterior aspect of the pelvis?

Greater sciatic notch and lesser sciatic notch

14

What is the angle of inclination?

The angle that the long axis of the shaft makes with the long axis of the head and neck

15

What determines the size of the angle between the long axis of the shaft and the vertical plane?

The width of the hips

16

What structures form the greater and lesser sciatic foramina?

Sacrospinous ligament
Sacrotuberous ligament

17

What are the two fascia found in the thigh?

Superficial fascia – e.g. subcutaneous tissue
Deep fascia – fascia lata

18

What is the name given to the lateral thickened area of the fascia lata?

Ilio-tibial tract

19

What are the four compartments of this region?

Gluteal compartment
Anterior compartment of the thigh
Medial compartment of the thigh
Posterior compartment of the thigh

20

What movements are the muscles of the gluteal region responsible for?

Extension, abduction and external rotation of the femur

21

What are the gluteal muscles?

Gluteus maximus
Gluteus medius
Gluteus minimus
(tensor fasciae latae – this is neurologically a gluteal muscle (innervated by superior gluteal nerve) but functionally it is more of an anterior compartment muscle)

22

What are the short external rotators of the hip?

Piriformis
Obturator internus
Quadratus femoris
Gemelli (superior and inferior)

23

Describe the attachments of gluteus maximus.

Proximal – posterior part of the iliac crest and thick fascia of the sacrum and coccyx
Distal – gluteal tuberosity and ilio-tibial tract

24

What proportion of the gluteus maximum fibres attach to the gluteal tuberosity?

About 25% attach to the gluteal tuberosity and the rest are attached to the ilio-tibial tract

25

What does the ilio-tibial tract insert into?

Anterolateral tubercle of the tibia
NOTE: there is a lateral intermuscular septum that goes between the iliotibial tract and the posterior surface of the femur

26

Describe the attachments of gluteus medius.

Proximal – broad attachment to the external surface of the ilium (between the anterior and posterior gluteal lines)
Distal – greater trochanter

27

Describe the attachments of gluteus minimus.

Proximal – broad attachment to the external surface of the ilium (between the anterior and inferior gluteal lines)
Distal – just below the greater trochanter

28

What movement are gluteus medius and gluteus minimus responsible for?

Abduction

29

What movement are the deep muscles of the gluteal region responsible for?

External rotation

30

Describe the attachments of tensor fasciae latae.

Proximal – ASIS
Distal – ilio-tibial tract