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Anatomy of the Limbs > The hand > Flashcards

Flashcards in The hand Deck (84)
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1

How are the thumb and digits named?

Thumb
Index Finger
Middle Finger
Ring Finger
Little Finger

2

Name the carpal bones.

SLTP + TTCH
Scaphoid, Lunate Triquetrum, Pisiform
Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate

3

What other bones make up the hand?

Metacarpals
Proximal, Middle and Distal Phalanges

4

How many radio-ulnar joints are there?

2 – proximal and distal

5

Describe the distal articulation of the radius and ulna with the carpal bones.

Radius – articulates with scaphoid and lunate
Ulna – doesn’t directly articulate with the carpal bones, it articulates with an articular disc

6

What separates the anterior and posterior compartments of the forearm?

Interosseous membrane

7

What type of bone is the pisiform bone?

Sesamoid – it is encased within a tendon (flexor carpi ulnaris)

8

What are the four parts of the metacarpals?

Head (distal), tubercle, shaft and base

9

Which two carpal bones have bone protrusions?

Hook of Hamate
Tubercle of Trapezium

10

What type of skin do you get on the palms of your hands?

Palmar-plantar skin

11

Which muscle forms the palmar aponeurosis?

It is the distal end of palmaris longus

12

What is the palmar aponeurosis distally and proximally continuous with?

Distal – fibrous digital sheaths
Proximal – flexor retinaculum

13

What is contained within the fibrous digital sheaths?

Flexor tendons and their synovial sheaths

14

Which muscle tendons are found within the fibrous digital sheaths? Describe their attachments.

Flexor digitorum superficialis
Flexor digitorum profundus
FDS lies superficial to FDP and splits in two about midway up the proximal phalanx
FDP then runs between the two divisions of FDS
The two branches of FDS attach to the middle phalanx and FDP attaches to the distal phalanx

15

Which small quadrate muscle is found proximal to the hypothenar compartment?

Palmaris brevis

16

What is another name for the flexor retinaculum?

Transverse carpal ligament

17

Name the compartments of the hand.

Thenar
Hypothenar
Adductor
Central

18

What separates the compartments of the hand?

Fibrous septa

19

What are the two main spaces found within the hand?

Midpalmar
Thenar

20

What structures do the septa form within the hand?

Channels that contain various structures e.g. long flexors passing from the wrist into the digits

21

What does ‘carpi’ mean?

Acting on the wrist

22

What does ‘digitorum’ mean?

Acting on more than one finger

23

State the muscles in the superficial anterior compartment of the forearm.

Pronator teres (PT)
Flexor carpi radialis (FCR)
Palmaris longus (PL)
Flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS)
Flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU)

24

What is the name given to the proximal attachment of all of these muscles?

Common flexor origin (at the medial epicondyle of the humerus)

25

What muscles are in the deep anterior compartment of the forearm?

Flexor digitorum profundus (FDP)
Flexor pollicis longus (FPL)
Pronator quadratus (FQ)

26

Where do these muscles attach?

Flexor digitorum profundus (FDP)
Posterior and medial borders of ulna and interosseous membrane
To the distal phalanges of the four fingers
Flexor pollicis longus (FPL)
Interosseous membrane and anterior surface of radius
To palmar side of the distal phalanx of the thumb
Pronator quadratus (PQ)
Anterior surface of distal ulna
To anterior surface of distal radius

27

Which muscles of the anterior compartment do not cross the wrist?

Pronator quadratus and pronator teres

28

State the 12 muscles of the posterior compartment of the forearm.

Supinator
Brachioradialis
Abductor pollicis longus (APL)
Extensor pollicis longus (EPL)
Extensor pollicis brevis (EPB)
Extensor indicis (EI)
Extensor digitorum (ED)
Extensor digiti minimi (EDM)
Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL)
Extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB)
Extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU)
Extensor retinaculum (not a muscle)

29

What is the common proximal attachment of most of these muscles?

Common extensor origin (just distal to the lateral epicondyle)

30

Which muscles have a proximal attachment along the ulna rather than the common extensor tendon?

Abductor pollicis longus (APL)
Extensor pollicis longus (EPL)
Extensor pollicis brevis (EPB)
Extensor indicis (EI)