Hirsch - Brain Structure Flashcards Preview

Neurobiology > Hirsch - Brain Structure > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hirsch - Brain Structure Deck (54):
1

Navigating the body

rostral
caudal
dorsal
ventral
medial
lateral

2

rostral

anterior
towards the nose

3

caudal

posterior
towards the tail or rear

4

dorsal

superficial
towards the back

5

ventral

inferior
towards the belly

6

medial

towards the midline

7

lateral

towards the side

8

Nervous system

CNS
PNS

9

CNS

cerebrum
cerebellum
brainstem
spinal cord

10

PNS

somatic
visceral

11

somatic

voluntary

12

visceral

autonomic
ex. organs

13

Gross Anatomical appearance of the brain

know anterior, posterior, dorsal, ventral, lateral (right/left) views of a brain

14

non-neural trappings of the brain - connective tissues

dura mater
arachnoid
pia mater
ventricles

15

dura mater

hard mother
leathery membrane
exterior anchored to cranium / interior to the pia

16

pia mater

soft mother
film
capillaries nourish the brain - meet metabolic demand of brain

17

arachnoid

spidery
network between dura and pia; attached to dura one side and pia on another side

* sub arachnoid space (between pia and arachnoid) is filled with cerebro-spinal fluid which is a shock absorber

18

ventricles

brain spaces filled with cerebral spinal fluid

19

Divisions of the Central Nervous System

Forebrain
Midbrain
Hindbrain
Spinal cord

20

Forebrain

prosencephalon

21

midbrain

mesencephalon

22

hindbrain

rhombencephalon

23

prosencephalon

telencephalon
diencephalon

24

mesencephalon

Mesencephalon

25

rhombencephalon

metencephalon
myelencephalon

26

telencephalon

cerebral cortex
basal ganglia
etc

27

diencephalon

thalamus
hypothalamus
etc

28

mesencephalon

tectum
etc.

29

metencephalon

cerebellum
pons
etc

30

myelencephalon

medulla oblongata
etc

31

cerebral cortex

hemisphere
lobe
cortex
gyrus
sulcus
fissure

32

Hemisphere

right and left hemisphere

33

lobe

chunk of cortex
divided by deep groove

34

cortex

layers
cerebral cortex = neocortex, archicortex, paleocortex

35

gyrus

ridge

36

sulcus

groove, valley

37

fissure

deep sulcus

38

Surface anatomy - lateral view
- know names with picture

(clockwise)
temporal lobe
brain stem
cerebellum
occipital lobe
calcarine sulcus (or fissure)
parietal lobe
central sulcus
frontal lobe
lateral sulcus (or fissure)
temporal lobe

39

Surface anatomy - medial view
- know names with picture

(clockwise, spiral- out to in)
medulla
pons
temporal lobe
frontal lobe
parietal lobe
occipitallobe
cerebellum
midbrain
hypothalamus
corpus callosum
thalamus

40

brain tissue

grey matter
white matter
nuclei
fascicles
penduncles

41

grey matter

cell bodies

42

white matter

myelinated axons (fibers); fatty sheet

43

nuclei

roughly circumscribed groups of cell bodies

44

fascicles

bundle of fibers

45

peduncles

thick bundles of fibers connecting big parts of the brain to other big parts of the brain

46

three orthogonal planes of a brain

coronal - crown; front and back
horizontal - looking to the horizon; up and down
sagittal; right and left

47

Horsley-Clarke stereotaxic apparatus

use landmarks on the skull serve as reference points

latero-lateral (x) - sagittal
dorso-ventral (y) - coronal
rostro-caudal (z) - horizontal

48

Talairach coordinate system

conceptually similar to the Horsley - Clarke system

49

Localization of function

started as Phrenology - not true

50

Phineas Gage

frontal lobe damage

51

Broca

patient could not speak
utter one word "tan"
inferior frontal lobe

52

Wernicke

superior temporal lobe
loss of ability to recognize words; unable to communicate

53

motor homunculus

map of the body laid out over a specific region of the brain

54

Brodmann

cytoarchitecture
different Brodmann areas correlate with different functions