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Flashcards in Histology Deck (10)
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What is histology

- The study of anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals
- Study of their composition and function, diseases are alterations of normal histology
- Ability to identify abnormal tissues, compare histology with patho-histology (link to medical conditions) and associate structure and function


What is pathology

- The science of nature, causes and affects of diseases
- Normal physiology to pathogenesis and disease
- Find cause of clinical symptoms and treat the patient
- Histology, chemistry, cytology, microbiology, genetics, virology and immunology


What are the types of microscopes

- Light Microscope: Magnify 1000 fold, 2D, snapshot in time, colour
- Scanning Electron Microscope: Scans with a focused beam of electrons, produces 3D images of surface topography, limited of resolution 2nm, colour
- Transmission Electron Microscope: Limit of resolution 2nm, 2D snapshot in time, black and white


What are artefacts

- Artefact: Pseudo-structure, something observed that is not natural present, chemical or physical alterations or contaminations before or during the processing
- Examples: Shrinkage, colour changes, alteration of structures, folding, scratches, foreign material, can lead to hidden structures and change of tissue appearance


What is the purpose of staining

- Purpose: Most cells are transparent, staining to make cells and their contents visible allows determination of cell type, tissue and pathology
- Types: Acidic and basic dyes allow visualisation of different organelles (H&E staining)


What is a H&E stain

- Haematoxylin: Stains like basic dye, reacts with nucleic acids, DNA in nucleus, RNA in ribosomes and in rough endoplasmic reticulum and carbohydrates in cartilage, stains blue / black
- Eosin: Acidic dye (negatively charged), reacts with proteins, filaments in muscle cells, intracellular membranes and extracellular fibres, stains pink


What are common terms related to pathology

- Pathos: Suffering
- Logia: Study / understanding
- Cytology: Structure and function of cells
- Etiology / Aetiology: Cause of a disease or condition
- Pathogenesis: Process and manner for developing disease
- Expression: Something visible / manifested
- Morphology: A particular form, shape or structure


Who is the father of modern general pathology

- Giovanni Battista Morgagni
- Father of modern general pathology, seats and causes of disease
- Investigated by means of anatomy, published in 1761


Who is the father of modern cellular pathology

- Rudolph Virchow
- Father of modern cellular pathology
- All diseases are the results of visible cell abnormalities
- Every cell stems from another cell, 1821-1902


Questions for analysing histology

- Is there a scale bar or magnification given?
- Which colour is the image?
- Can I see any double membranes?
- Can I identify organelles or cells? How many?
- Is there anything else that is unusual/special about the image?