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Flashcards in histology respiratory system Deck (27):
1

respiratory system can be functionally divided into...

conducting division and respiratory division

2

functions of respirator system

air conduction and filtration
gas exchange
speech
olfaction

3

components of the conducting division

nose
pharynx
larynx
trachea
bronchi
bronchioles including terminal bronchioles

4

components of the respiratory division

respiratory bronchioles
alveolar ducts
alveolar sacs
alveoli

5

what is the function of mucous in the respiratory system

used as part of the conduction system to condition the air by moistening it and trapping particles

6

how does particulate matter trapped in the lungs get out?

it gets caught i mucous then cilia of the respiratory ep sweep it toward the pharynx where it's swallowed

7

function of goblet cells

secrete mucous

8

composition of the conduction system's walls

respiratory ep. (pseudostrat ciliated columnar)
goblet cells (mucous)
basal cells (stem cells)
lamina propria (can contain serous demilunes)
submucosa
adventitia

9

laryngopharynx extends from the upright ______ to the ______ and is covered with ______ epithelium

epiglotis
larynx
nonkeratinized stratified sq. ep b/c food passes through it.

10

larynx is the passageway between the ______ and _______ and is the organ for _______

laryngopharynx
trachea
speech

11

most of the larynx is covered with _____ ep. but the vocal folds are covered with ______ because they undergo a lot of _______

pseudostrat ciliated columnar
nonker. strat squam ep.
friction

12

what's made out of what cartilage in the larynx?

hyaline: tyroid, crichoid
elastic: epiglottis, cuneiform, corniculate
mis: arytenoid

13

the trachea is _____ cm long and contains _______ crichoid rings

10 cm
16-20 rings

14

what closes off the crichoid rings posteriorly? and what does it seperate

fibroelzstic tissue and trachealis muscle
they separate the subucosa from the adventitia

15

what's unique about the mucosa and submucosa of the trachea

mucosa has a very thick basement membrane
the submucosa has a relatively loose connective tissue (usually dense)

16

what three things happen in the conduction pathway as the bronchi branch and get smaller?

amount of cartilage decreases
amount of sm muscle increases
height of lining ep decreases

17

the trachea branches into _________ which branch into _________ which branches into __________

main/primary
lobar/secondary
segmental/tertiary

18

what traits of the right main bronchi make it more vulnerable to catching food than the left?

it's shorter, wider and straighter

19

each segmental bronchi enter a _______ of the lung, there are _____ in the left lung and _____ in the right and each has their own ________ and ________

bronchopulmonary segment
8-10 in the left
10 in the right
with their own blood supply and connective tissue septa

20

when the bronchi enter the lungs, the crichoid cartilage is replaced with ______ which decrease as the branches get smaller and dissappear completely when the bronchi reach a size of _____ and become ________. contrastly ______ increases and eventually forms a complete circumferential layer called the ________

hyaline cartilage plates
1mm
bronchioles
muscles
muscularis

21

traits of bronchioles

simple ciliated cuboidal ep.
no glands
muscularis increases
no cartilage
1mm diameter
few goblet cells present

22

after the terminal bronchioles the respiratory division begins, what is the order of the components of the respiratory division

respiratory bronchioles
alveolar ducts
alveolar sacs
alveoli

23

what is the cell unique to bronchioles, and what's its function

clara cells
secretes lipoprotein to prevent bronchiolar adhesion

24

about how many alveoli are in a lung?

150-250 million

25

what composes the blood-air barrier seperating air in the alveolus from blood in the capillary?

surface lining and cytoplasm of the alveolar cells
fused basal laminae of the alveolar cell and capillary endothelial cells
cytoplasm of the endothelial cells

26

what does the alveolar septum separate?

two alveoli

27

cells of the alveolar septum and their functions

type 1 alveolar cells- gas exchange
type 2 alveolar cells - secrete surfactant
dust cells - macrophages that phagocytose particulate matter
endothelial cells
fibroblasts