Histopathology and cytopathology Flashcards Preview

MCD - Diagnostics > Histopathology and cytopathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histopathology and cytopathology Deck (11):

What is histopathology?

Preperation and examination of tissue sections


What is cytopathology?

Examination of individual cells


What situations would require the use of histo and cytopathology as a diagnostic method?

Tissue diagnosis e.g. cancer spread and staging


What are the main steps in processing a specimen?

Label properly
Fix in formalin
Embed in paraffin wax
Cut sections
Stain e.g. gram staining, Ziehl–Neelsen stain


What type of specimens might be tested?

1) Biopsies of tumors
2) resection specimens
3) frozen sections
1) Smears -HPV screening
2) Fine needle aspirates


When might frozen section diagnosis be required?

To tell if all of a tumor is removed
To tell if something is cancerous
To identify abnormalities during another operation and deal with them if needs be e.g. c-sections often find abnormalities that need to be tested.


What are the advantages of frozen section diagnosis?

Rapid diagnosis 20-30 mins
Can prevent multiple surgeries and fully remove tumor/deal with a problem quickly.


What are resection specimines?

Taking out large sections of organs to look at cancer's interaction with blood vessels and other structures.


What are frozen sections?

Sample sent to a lab during an operation.
Frozen, sliced, stained and examined ASAP


What are fine needle aspirates?

Usually fluids e.g. from a lump in the neck. Can take soild samples and suspend them in liquid.
Used for cytology


What can immunohistochemistry reveal?

Markers for lymphocytes breast cells vessels.