Flashcards in Histopathology and cytopathology Deck (11):
What is histopathology?
Preperation and examination of tissue sections
What is cytopathology?
Examination of individual cells
What situations would require the use of histo and cytopathology as a diagnostic method?
Tissue diagnosis e.g. cancer spread and staging
What are the main steps in processing a specimen?
Fix in formalin
Embed in paraffin wax
Stain e.g. gram staining, Ziehl–Neelsen stain
What type of specimens might be tested?
1) Biopsies of tumors
2) resection specimens
3) frozen sections
1) Smears -HPV screening
2) Fine needle aspirates
When might frozen section diagnosis be required?
To tell if all of a tumor is removed
To tell if something is cancerous
To identify abnormalities during another operation and deal with them if needs be e.g. c-sections often find abnormalities that need to be tested.
What are the advantages of frozen section diagnosis?
Rapid diagnosis 20-30 mins
Can prevent multiple surgeries and fully remove tumor/deal with a problem quickly.
What are resection specimines?
Taking out large sections of organs to look at cancer's interaction with blood vessels and other structures.
What are frozen sections?
Sample sent to a lab during an operation.
Frozen, sliced, stained and examined ASAP
What are fine needle aspirates?
Usually fluids e.g. from a lump in the neck. Can take soild samples and suspend them in liquid.
Used for cytology