Histopathology and cytopathology Flashcards Preview

MCD - Diagnostics > Histopathology and cytopathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histopathology and cytopathology Deck (11):
1

What is histopathology?

Preperation and examination of tissue sections

2

What is cytopathology?

Examination of individual cells

3

What situations would require the use of histo and cytopathology as a diagnostic method?

Tissue diagnosis e.g. cancer spread and staging

4

What are the main steps in processing a specimen?

Label properly
Fix in formalin
Embed in paraffin wax
Cut sections
Stain e.g. gram staining, Ziehl–Neelsen stain

5

What type of specimens might be tested?

Histopathlogy
1) Biopsies of tumors
2) resection specimens
3) frozen sections
Cytopathology
1) Smears -HPV screening
2) Fine needle aspirates

6

When might frozen section diagnosis be required?

To tell if all of a tumor is removed
To tell if something is cancerous
To identify abnormalities during another operation and deal with them if needs be e.g. c-sections often find abnormalities that need to be tested.

7

What are the advantages of frozen section diagnosis?

Rapid diagnosis 20-30 mins
Can prevent multiple surgeries and fully remove tumor/deal with a problem quickly.

8

What are resection specimines?

Taking out large sections of organs to look at cancer's interaction with blood vessels and other structures.

9

What are frozen sections?

Sample sent to a lab during an operation.
Frozen, sliced, stained and examined ASAP

10

What are fine needle aspirates?

Usually fluids e.g. from a lump in the neck. Can take soild samples and suspend them in liquid.
Used for cytology

11

What can immunohistochemistry reveal?

Markers for lymphocytes breast cells vessels.