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What was Britain like during the Ice Ages (10,000 yrs ago)

Connected to Europe, so hunter gatherers came and went.


What was Britain like 6000 yrs ago?

Farmers came from southeast Europe and built monuments such as Stonehenge.


What was Britain like 4,000 yrs ago?

Bronze age, followed by Iron age. They spoke Celtic languages.


Why is the Iron Age significant?

Hill forts, division of labour, culture and economy -- made coins and kings. Beginning of British history.


Who led an unsuccessful invasion from Rome in 55 bc?

Julius Caesar


Which roman emperor led a successful invasion of Britain in 43 ad?w



Who was Boudicca?

Queen of the iceni who fought against Claudius. She is commemorated by a statue on Westminster bridge?


What was hadrian's wall?

A wall in the north of England to keep out the Picts. It is now a unesco site.


How long were the Romans in Britain and what did they provide?

The Romans were in Britain for 400 years. They built roads, public buildings, crested a structure of law, and introduced new plants and animals.


What year did the Romans leave Britain?

410 ad. As a result Britain was invaded by the angles, the Saxons and the Jutes.


When were Anglo Saxon kingdoms established in England?

600 ad


What is Sutton hoo?

An Anglo Saxon king, in a ship with treasure and armour.


When were Christian communities first in Britain?

3rd to 4th centuries


Which parts of Great Britain did not get invaded by the Anglo Saxons?

Scotland, parts of the West Country and wales


How did the Anglo Saxons get introduced to Christianity ?

Missionaries from Ireland, such as st Patrick and st Columba (who founded a monastery on the island of Iona) spread Christianity in the north. St Augustine led missionaries from Rome to the south and became first Archbishop of Canterbury.


Who invaded Britain from denmark and Norway in 789 ad?

The Vikings raided England at this time.


Who united the Anglo Saxons and defeated the Vikings?

Alfred the great


Who was the first Danish king ?

Cnut or Canute


Who was the first king of Scotland?

Kenneth MacAlpin


What is 1066 ad known for?

William, duke of Normandy, defeated Harold, Saxon king of England at the battle of Hastings.


What does the bayeux tapestry commemorate?

The battle of Hastings where William the conqueror defeated Harold, the Saxon king of England


Why is the Norman invasion significant?

Last successful foreign invasion of England. Norman French affected the development of English and there were changes to the government and social structures in England.


What is the domesday book?

William the conqueror did a census all over England. This gives a picture of what life was like at that time.


By what events are the Middle Ages defined?

From the Norman conquest 1066 to 1485.


What was the statute of rhuddlan in 1284?

King Edward the first annexed wales to England.


Why did the English build huge castles in wales?

To maintain against welsh rebellions.


By the 15th century, what was Wales like?

The rebellions were defeated and English laws and language were introduced.


What was the relationship between Ireland and English at the beginning of the Middle Ages?

The English first went to Ireland to help the king there. They stayed and built their first settlements. By 1200 they ruled the pale, around Dublin.


What were the English doing abroad during the Middle Ages?

1 they were fighting in the crusades, trying to gain control of the holy land.

2 they were fighting with France during the Hundred Years' War, in which there was the battle of agincourt, where Henry five conquered the French against all odds.

3 the English left France in the 1450s


What disaster struck Britain in 1348?

The black death. One third of the population died.


What effect did the Black Death have on England?

There were labour shortages so the peasants gained some rights. The middle class developed as a result of people moving to towns.


What did parliament develop from?

Parliament started from the king's council of advisers, which included noblemen and church men.


What important limit on the king's power came in to effect in 1215?

The Magna Carta


What did the Magna Carta do?

1. The king is subject to law. 2. Protected the rights of nobility 3. Restricted the king's power to collect taxes and to change laws. Overall, the king needs to get the noblemen involved in decisions.


What was the result of the Magna Carta?

Parliament was created.


What happened when numbers increased to Parliament?

The two houses were established in Parliament.


Who was in the first House of Commons?

Knights, smaller landowners and wealthy commoners.


Who sat in the first House of Lords?

Nobility, great landowners, and bishops.


What is the difference between the Scottish and English parliaments?

The English parliament had two houses; the Scottish parliament had three houses, one for the lords, one for the commons, and one for the clergy.


What were the developments in the legal system at the time of the Magna Carta?

Judges are independent of the government. English have common law, while Scotland's law is codified.


How did English develop?

After the Norman conquest, the upper classes spoke Norman French and the lower classes spoke Anglo Saxon. Then the two languages combined. English became the official language in 1400.


What was the Canterbury tales?

Chaucer wrote a series of poems in English about people on pilgrimage to Canterbury.


Who was William Caxton?

The first person in England to use a printing press, and the Canterbury tales was one of the first ones.


How did the scots language develop?

In the Middle Ages many people spoke Gaelic and then the scots language developed. Many poets write in scots, like John Barbour, who wrote the Bruce about the battle of bannockburn.


What sort of buildings were built in the Middle Ages?

Many castles were built and also great cathedrals.


What did England trade during the Middle Ages?

Wool, and many people with special skills came from the continent?


What civil war was fought in 1455?

The wars of the roses, to decide who was to be king.


What was the symbol of Lancaster?

Red rose


What was the symbol of York?

The white rose


What was the battle of Bosworth field?

It ended the wars of the roses in 1485.


What was the result of the wars of the roses?

Richard 111 of York was killed and Henry Tudor, house of Lancaster, became king. He became Henry 7.


Who did Henry 7 marry?

Richard 3 niece, Elizabeth of York, so the two houses were unified. The Tudors had a red rose with a white rose inside.


What did Henry 7 do?

He centralised England's power as he wanted England to be stable?


What was Henry the 8 famous for?

Breaking away from the Catholic Church and marrying 6 times.


Who were Henry 8 wives?

Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of cleves, Catherine Howard, Catherine parr


Who was Catherine of Aragon?

Henry 8 wife number one. Spanish princess, had Mary. Divorced.


Who was Anne Boleyn?

Henry8 wife number 2. English, mother of Elizabeth. Executed.


Who was jane Seymour?

Henry 8 wife number 3. Gave Henry prince Edward, then died.


Who was anne of cleves?

Henry 8 wife 4. German princess. Divorced.


Who was Catherine Howard?

Henry 8 wife 5. Cousin of Anne Boleyn. Executed.


Who was Catherine parr?

Henry 8 wife 6. Survived.


How did the Church of England come about?

Henry 8 wanted to divorce his first wife but the pope wouldn't let him, so he established the Church of England. This coincided with the reformation.


What were Protestant ideas?

No Latin, no praying to saints ir at shrines, personal relationship with god more important than relationship with church.


What is the order of succession from Henry 8?

Henry, Edward, Mary and Elizabeth.


What was the conflict between Mary and Elizabeth?

Mary was a catholic and persecuted Protestants. Elizabeth established the Church of England.


In 1588, why did the Spanish send over the Armada?

The Spanish had sent over ships to restore Catholicism. The English defeated them. This made Elizabeth 1 popular.


How did the reformation affect Scotland?

In 1560 the Scottish parliament abolished Catholicism. There was a power struggle because Mary Stuart, or Mary queen of scots, was a catholic. She gave the throne to her son James vi and fled to England, but Elizabeth locked her up and killed her.


How did things change in England during the Elizabethan period?

Growing patriotism. There was exploration. Sir Francis drake, whose ship was the golden hinde and who was involved with defeating the Spanish, founded England's naval tradition and was one of the first to circumnavigate the world. Also colonialism, especially in America, and literature.


Who was Elizabeth's heir?

King James 6 of Scotland, who became king James 1. During his reign the famous translation of the bible was produced.


What happened to Ireland during the Elizabethan period?

Henrys 7 and 8 took over Ireland. During Elizabeth's and James rule there were catholic rebellions. Many Protestants moved to Northern Ireland.


How did James 1 and Charles 1 use the divine right of kings?

They tried to rule without parliament but in the end had to use parliament.


How did the English civil war begin?

Charles 1 wanted things to be more religious. Parliament was full of puritans and did not. Parliament wanted control of English army. Charles entered parliament and tried to arrest. Civil war began in 1642. The cavaliers vs Roundheads.


What was the outcome of the battles of marston moor?

Parliament had won the war and Charles was taken prisoner. After this he was executed.


What was the commonwealth?

When England was declared a republic it called itself the commonwealth.


Who was Oliver Cromwell?

General of the new English republic. He violently put down the royalist armies in Ireland, then defeated the Scottish army of Charles 2. After that he became the new leader of the republic (lord protector). When he died his son took over but he could not bring stability to the country.


What happened during the restoration?

Charles 2 had fled to Europe. Parliament invited him back and crowned him king of England, wakes, Scotland and Ireland. He and parliament came to an agreement with a balance of power.


What significant events happened during Charles 2 reign?

Plague, then fire of London. Samuel Pepys wrote about these.


What was habeas corpus?

This said no one could be held prisoner unlawfully and had a right to a court hearing.


Who were two notable members of the royal society?

Edmond Halley and Isaac Newton.


What is the preamble to the glorious revolution?

Charles 2's brother was his heir, James 2 and 7. He was catholic and had a son whom everyone thought would be catholic.


What was the glorious revolution?

William of Orange, the Protestant ruler of the Netherlands, took over England in a bloodless revolution. James 2 tried to take England back but he was defeated at the battle of the boyne. This means parliament had power. The scots supported James and a rebellion at killiecrankie was put down and there was a massacre. The Jacobites were James' supporters.


What did the bill of rights accomplish?

Parliament had limited the power of the king. A new parliament is elected every 5 years.


Who were the Whigs and the Tories?

The first parties in parliament.


During what period was the free press begun?

During the glorious revolution.


When did the constitutional monarchy begin?

During the glorious revolution.


What was the early constitutional monarchy like?

The monarch was important but the ministers gradually became more important. Only males and landowners had the right to vote. There were pocket boroughs vs rotten boroughs.


What was happening to the population during the reign of William and Mary?

People left Britain and Ireland but then many came to the uk. The first Jews came to England, and Huguenots, Protestant French people. These people were educated and skilled.


What was the Act of Union?

Known as the treaty of Union in Scotland, it officially unified the kingdom of Great Britain because Queen Anne, William and Mary's successor, had no heirs and people were worried about the succession.


How did the position of prime minister come about?

After Queen Anne, parliament chose the German George 1 to be king. He did not speak English very well, so he needed to rely on ministers. The most important minister was the prime minister.


Who was the first prime minister?

Robert Walpole.


What was the Scottish unrest that happened during the reign of George 1?

The scots wanted a Stuart on the throne so they rebelled twice. The second time, Charles Stuart, Bonnie prince Charlie, organ used a Scottish army by was defeated at the battle of culloden ion 1746. Charles escaped back to Europe and Scottish clans lost a lot of power after that. They only gained power from the English.


What were the highland clearances?

Scottish landlords evicted small farms to make way for larger farms. Scots left to North America at this time.


Who was Robert burns?

Best Scottish poet who wrote auld lang syne which is sung during new year.


What was the enlightenment?

New ideas about politics, philosophy and science were developed.


Who was Adam Smith?



Who was David Hume?



Who was James Watt?

Steam power inventor


What was one of the most important principles of the Enlightenment?

Everyone has a right to their own political and religious beliefs.


What was the industrial revolution?

The end of economy based on agriculture and cottage industry and the rapid development of economy based on industry.


Why did the industrial revolution take place?

The development of steam power and machinery.


What was a result of the industrial revolution?

Coal mining, transportation, canals and trains, ports, trade.


Who was Richard Arkwright?

Invented the carding machine and had efficient factories.


What were working conditions like in the industrial revolution?

No employment laws. Child labour.


What was the world outside of Britain like during the industrial revolution?

Increased colonisation , Australia, Canada, India and South Africa. Global trade. Conflict with other expanding nations.


Who was James cook?

Mapped coast of Australia


Who was sake dean mahomet?

First curry house and brought some Indian culture.


How was the slave trade related to the industrial revolution?

The commercial expansion needed manpower, thus the slave trade from west Africa.


How did the slave trade work?

British ships took slaves from west Africa to America to work on tobacco and sugar plantations.


Who were the abolitionists?

Anti slavery group, mostly Quakers.


Who was William wilberforce?

Turned public opinion against slavery. By 1807 it was illegal to trade slaves from British ports and In 1833 Helped to Establish the emancipation act which made slavery illegal in the British empire.


Who replaced the slaves?

Indian and Chinese workers.


Why were France and England fighting?

Colonialism and trade


What was the battle of trafalgar?

Naval war against France and Spain. Britain won. Admiral nelson died.


Who was admiral nelson!

Admiral in the battle of trafalgar. Nelson's column is a monument to him.


What happened in the battle of Waterloo?

British army fought against French. Britain won against napoleons. Duke of Wellington wAs in charge.


Who was the duke of Wellington?

Winner of battle of Waterloo. Became prince minister and was known as the iron duke.


What was the act of Union of 1800?

Unified Ireland with England, Scotland and wales. This created the Union Jack.


What are the three crosses on the Union Jack?

St George, st Andrew and st Patrick


Why is the welsh flag not on the Union Jack?

Wales was already united with England when the first union flag was created.


Who was the longest reigning monarch?

Queen Victoria.


What was the British empire?

During the Victorian period the British empire included India, Australia and large parts of Africa. It was the largest empire ever.


What was the effect of the British empire?

There was much immigration and emigration. Jews immigrated to bed end, Manchester and Leeds. Others came from India and Africa.


How did trade and industry change during Victorian times?

Policies of free trade, better working conditions such as housing and working hours, better transportation, such as railways to provide links for people and goods. Also engineering.


What did repealing the corn laws do?

Cheap grain could be imported, so industry could be developed.


Who were George and Robert Stephenson?

Made the railway engine.


Who was isambard Kingdom Brunel?

Engineer who worked on transportation. He was responsible for the great western railway.


What was the great exhibition of 1851?

It demonstrated britain's supremacy in industry and financial services.


What was the Crimean war?

Britain, turkey and France fought again Russia in 1853 to 1856. Conditions were very poor.


During which war did queen Victoria introduce the Victoria cross?

Crimean war.


Who was Florence nightingale?

The founder of modern nursing. She treated soldiers in the Crimean war. She introduced the nightingale training school in st thomas' hospital.


What happened to Ireland during the 19th century?

Conditions were bad and nationalist movements formed. Also there was the potato famine and emigration.


Who were the Fenians?

An Irish nationalist movement who wanted complete independence.


Who was Charles Stuart Parnell?

He advocated hone rule, in which Ireland would remain in the uk but have own parliament.


How did democracy develop during the 19th century?

At first, only men who owned property could vote. The reform act of 1832 got rid of pocket and rotten boroughs and allowed more townspeople to vote. Thus more middle class people could vote. In 1867 another reform act allowed poorer people to vote but working class people still couldn't vote. The people who campaigned for this were called Chartists. Thus there was a move towards universal suffrage.


What did the acts of parliament in 1870 and 1882 do?

Gave wives right to own property.


Who was emmeline Pankhurst?

Set up women's franchise league and women's social and political union. She fought for women's right to vote.


What happened to the British empire in its later stages?

Some thought the empire was helpful for the economy. Others thought it was a drain.


How did the boer war determine the future of the empire?

The boer war aroused people's sympathies and made them question the viability of the British empire.


What happened to the British empire in the end?

Countries were granted their independence.


Who was rudyard Kipling?

An author who believed in the British empire. His most popular works are just so stories, the jungle book and the poem if.


What was the trigger for the First World War?

The assassination of franz Ferdinand.


What cut short the prosperity in Britain in the early 20th century?

The First World War.


What were the real triggers for the First World War?

Nationalism, imperialism, mitilarism, and division of Europe into two sides.


Who were the allied powers in the First World War?

France, Russia, Japan, Belgium, Serbia, Greece, Italy, Romania and the us. The whole of the British empire was involved.


Who were the central powers in the First World War?

The Germans, the Austro Hungarian empire and Bulgaria.


What was the worst battle in World War One?

The attack of the Somme, where there were 60000 British casualties.


Who won the First World War?

Britain and the allies, on 11 nov 1918


During World War One what wAs happening in Ireland?

The British had formerly promised home rule but that was delayed because of World War One. The Irish nationalists were not willing to wait and started the Easter riding. Terrorism followed. In 1922 Ireland was partitioned.


How was Ireland partitioned?

The Protestant North remained part of the uk and the South became its own country. Ireland became a republic in 1949.


What are the troubles?

Conflict and terror due those wishing for full independence and those loyal to the British government.qa


What were the characteristics of the interwar period?

The Great Depression, car ownership, unemployment, low prices, cultural blossoming, radio and television broadcasts.


Who was graham green?

An author during the interwar period.


Who wAs Evelyn Waugh?

Author during the interwar period.


Who was john Maynard Keynes?

Economist during interwar period.


How did ww2 start?

Adolf hitler did not like the conditions imposed on the Germans after ww1. He tried to expand Germany by conquest.


Who were the two sides in ww2?

Axis - Germany, Italy and Japan. Allies - uk, France, Poland, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and s Africa.


What happened in ww2 after hitler took France?

Winston Churchill became prime minister and Britain elected to remove soldiers from France. They had to rescue men from the beaches of Dunkirk. Much equipment and lives were lost but it was a success. This is where the phrase 'Dunkirk spirit' comes from.


What was ww2 like for Britain in 1940?

Britain and empire alone against the nazis. Germany had invaded the Soviet Union.


What is the Battle of Britain?

Crucial air battle which the British won using the spitfire and the hurricane.


What was the blitz?

Despite Britain regaining control of its airspace, the Germans continued to bomb Britain at night. Coventry was destroyed and london, especially the east end. Thus the phrase 'the blitz spirit' came about.


Who was Winston Churchill?

Prime minister during and after ww2.


What are Winston churchills famous speeches?

I have nothing to offer but blood sweat and teArs.
We shall fight on the beaches ...
Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.


What event prompted the us yo enter ww2 in 1941?

Bombing of Pearl Harbor


What caused the turning point in the war?

Hitler tried to invade the Soviet Union, which was a mistake.


What wAs dday?

1944 allied forces landed in Normandy, where they began a systematic defeat of hitlers forces.


What happened in may 1945?

Defeat of Germany


What was the decisive finish to the war?

Nuclear bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.


Who was Ernest Rutherford?

Developed the atom bomb.


Who was Alexander Fleming?

Discovered penicillin in 1928.


Who was Howard Florey and Ernst chain?

Developed penicillin into a usable drug.


Who was aneurin (nye) bevan?

Minister for health who established the nhs.


Who was clement Attlee?

Prime minister after Winston Churchill, who worked for social improvement like nhs, welfare state and the nationalisation of industry.


What happened to the empire after ww2?

Colonies were granted independence.


How did NATO begin?

North Atlantic treaty organisation, and alliance set up to counteract the Soviet Union.


Who was William beveridge?

Wrote the beveridge report. Leader of liberals in House of Lords.


What was the beveridge report?

Social insurance and allied services. Commissioned during the war. Set the welfare state in motion. Government should fight want, disease, ignorance, squalor and idleness.


Who was r a butler?

Introduced the butler act in 1944, which established free secondary education in England and Wales. Enforced a division between primary and secondary education.


Who was Dylan Thomas?

Welsh Poet and writer. Wrote under milk wood and do not go gentle into that good night.


Why and who immigrated to Britain after ww2?

There were labour shortages after the war. People from the West Indies, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh migrated for work.


What happened in the 1960s?

Growth in popular culture, economic growth, liberalising of social laws, gender discrmiation stooped, technological progress, and migration tailed off ( except for those from Uganda).


Who was john logie Baird?

Invented the television and made the first television broadcast in the 1920s and made the first broadcast in the 1930s.


Who was sir Robert Watson wAtt?

Invented radar in 1935.


Who was sir Bernard Lovell?

He built the Jodrell Bank of telescopes in Cheshire.


Who was Alan Turing?

Invented the first computer in 1930s.


Who was john Macleod?

Co discoverer of insulin.


Who was Frances crick?

Discovered the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953.


Who was frank whittle?

Developed jet engine in 1930s.


Who was Christopher cockerell?

Invented the hovercraft in the 1950s.


What is Concorde?

Supersonic passenger plane developed by France and Britain. 1969 to 2003. First carried passengers in 1976.


What is the harrier jump jet?

Aircraft capable of taking off vertically.


Who was James goodfellow?

Invented the ATM in 1967.


Who was sir Robert edwards and Patrick steptoe?

Invented Ivf and first Ivf baby born in 1978


Who is Ian wilmut and Keith Campbell?

1996 cloned a mammal.


Who is Peter Mansfield?

Co inventor of MRI.


Who is sir tim Berners lee?

Inventor of the World Wide Web in 1990.


What was Britain like in the 1970s?

Post war boom ended and there was high inflation. Also there were strikes. Lastly unrest in Northern Ireland, when the parliament was suspended.


Who was Mary peters?

Won an Olympic gold medal for pentathlon. Promoted sport in Northern Ireland.


Who were the founding members of the EEC?

West Germany, France, Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands


What year was the EEC formed?



What year did the UK join the EEC?



Who was Margaret Thatcher?

Conservative minister who eventually became prime minister (first woman.) She was the longest serving minister.


What economic reforms did Margaret Thatcher make?

Privatisation of industries and limited trade union powers. She also participated in the Falklands war.


What did John Major do?

Helped with the Northern Ireland peace process.


Who was Roald Dahl?

Author who wrote Charlie and the Chocolate Factory and George's Marvellous Medicine.


What did the Blair government do?

Introduced the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh Assembly. It also built on the Peace Process for the Good Friday Agreement in Northern Ireland. The northern Ireland Assembly was elected but then suspended..


What role did the UK play on the world stage throughout the 1990s and 2000s?

Iraq and Yugoslavia war. War against terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq. UK left Iraq but now operates in Afghanistan as part of the UN peacekeeping force (ISAF)


What is the ISAF?

UN peacekeeping force in Afghanistan (International Security Assistance Force) to ensure Afghanistan never becomes aplace to harbor terrorists. Building military and government.


What is the Coalition government?

no political party won a majority.