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Flashcards in History Deck (199):

Protestant Reformation

The remission of temporal punishment for sin through the sale of indulgences


Ferdinand Magellan

First European explorer to circumnavigate the globe


Juan Cabrillo

First European to reach coastal California


Vasco de Gama

First European to reach India by sea


Francisco de Coronado of Spain

In 1540 explored the area that was to become the southwest of the United States


Ponce de Leon

Explored Florida in 1513 and claimed the area for Spain



A government by ecclesiastical authorities - with civil authority residing in members of the clergy Puritan New England


The articles of confederation

Held the new nation together from 1781 to 1789.
Recognizing the military's difficulties in raising an army during the American Revolution the Articles provided for both declaring war and establishing a military


The Constitution

Provided for a strong central government was power over taxation, interstate commerce, and eliminating the veto power of state over legislation



One house legislature


Bicameral legislature

Between the House and the Senate
the Constitution provided for this


Sixth amendment

The right to an impartial jury is an essential ingredient of a fair trial


How long does the president have to sign or veto a bill?

10 days (not including Sundays)

If the president receives a bill from Congress during the last 10 days of the legislative session and does not act on the bill the bill automatically dies


Best reason to eliminate a protective tariff

To encourage free trade


Free trade

All products (foreign and domestic) can be traded without government regulations that restrict the free flow of goods


A direct result of the contested presidential election of 1876

Federal troops were withdrawn from the South ending Reconstruction


The 15th amendment

Guaranteed voting rights to African-American men passed by the radical Republicans in 1869


13th amendment

Passed in 1865 -Freed the slaves
(Cornerstone of Republican reconstruction legislation along with 14th amendment)


14th amendment

Passed in 1866 gave citizenship to the former slaves
(Cornerstone of the Republican reconstruction legislation along with amendment 13)


U.S. industrialization in the late 19th century

Was essentially dehumanizing and impersonal.
Technological innovations resulting in more efficient laborsaving machinery but as machines replace workers and factories grew larger the labor-management relationships became increasingly impersonal


What best describes how natural resources influence the culture of the California Chumash Indians?

The Chumash lived along the southern part of the coastal region, they used tar to waterproof their canoes


What best describes the primary purpose for establishing the mission system?

To maintain a self-sufficient agriculture economy that produced of food surplus. The mission system in California it was originally intended to be temporary


Term limit for California Supreme Court justices

12 years


What power does the governor of California possess but the president of the US does not possess?

Power to veto specific sections of us spending bill


Primary reason for dramatic population increase in Mexicans living in California?

The Mexicans replaced the Japanese as low-paid agricultural workers


Chronological order of American civilizations

Olmec, Mayan, Tolec, Aztec



First explorers, traders, and colonizers throughout the Mediterranean. (invented the first true alphabet)

With little land to farm the Phoenicians became sea traders and built the great trading cities of Tyre and Sidon.


Believes in reincarnation



What spread Lutheranism by simplifying the translation of the Bible from Latin to German?

The printing press, which was invented in the 15th century lead to a major changes in the economic political and social development of European countries. The ability to spread information quickly allowed Martin Luther to print the Bible and vernacular German


Johannes Gutenberg

Credited with inventing the first printing press in 1451. The printing press had a profound and immediate impact on the political and social structure of Europe


Mercantilist system

System held that wealth was fixed and that the nation could only prosper through a strong government regulation of an economy three trade restrictions and tariffs.



The year of the Declaration of Independence was signed.

The declaration declared that the people had inalienable rights and the governments were set up to serve the people


The wealth of Nations

Book published by Adam Smith led to the concept of a free market economy without restrictive government regulation. Smith is generally considered the "father of capitalism"



A monumental religious temple built from hundreds of thousands of sun-dried bricks and stone. The word ziggurat means "mountain of God"


Mayan temples

Generally have four stairways one for each side of the structure leading to the top platform for priest to perform rituals and placated the gods


The massive granite pyramids of Egypt

Solely as a resting place for the pharaoh, not used for priestly worship


Magna Carta

Was signed in A.D. 1215 when a group of English Nobles forced King John to accept in writing limitations on the power of the king and limited central power, insured legal procedures, and became the source for English law and liberty


The Dred Scott Decision

Before the 14th amendment the Supreme Court ruled that Dred Scott (a slave) was not a citizen of the United States and therefore had no legal right to sue for his freedom. 1857


The stated purpose of the crusades

To win control of the Holy Land from the Muslims (infidels or non-Christians) lasted almost 2 centuries. expanded trade routes were a positive effect of the crusades on the west


Italian city-state related to the Medici family

The Renaissance began in Florence which the Medici family became very wealthy and powerful. Renowned artists such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo prospered under Lorenzo de Medici patronage


Roman territory is central to the importation of grains



Egypt's effect on the fall of the Roman Empire

The unstable food supply lead to increased domestic political unrest and political discontent. As such the breakdown of the food producing Providence and Egypt and north Africa became a contributing factor in the decline in the fall of the Roman Empire



First great west African trading empire, produce salt and gold


Spain England and France

The most significant European powers to colonize the New World


Primary factor in how England different from both the French and the Spanish colonies in the New World

The English migrated to the new world primarily at settlers and generally establish self-governing colonies


Primary result of the French and Indian war

Call the seven years war (1756–1763.) England wanted to expand their holdings in north America and take over France's lucrative fur trade. France relinquished control of Canada the Great Lakes and the upper Mississippi Valley to the British


Crucial factor that led to the American Revolution

England's aggressive taxation of the colonies to pay for the French and Indian war


"Join or Die"

Benjamin Franklin's cartoon first printed in 1754. What is the most famous political cartoon printed in colonial times. Franklin used initials on various parts of the snake to represent the colonies.


Central argument proposed in the Federalist papers.

The need for a strong central government to government country effectively written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay.


"Manifest destiny"

Slogan that the belief that the United States was ordained by God as a great nation and therefore was justified in expanding territorially from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific ocean.


"In God we trust"

Has appeared on US coins since 1864 during the Lincoln administration when he said "no nation can be strong except in the strength of God"


Battle of Antietam

In 1862 Union victory. Was crucial crucial to the morale of the North leads to Lincoln announcing the Emancipation Proclamation


Battle of Vicksburg

May 18 - July 4, 1863 Vicksburg was a fort that controlled traffic on the Mississippi River. When Vicksburg fell to the union General Grant the Confederacy was split in two


Battle of Gettysburg

July 1–3 1863 Took place in a small Pennsylvania town, Union victory.
Union general Meade defeated Confederate General Lee and prevented Lee's second invasion of the north


The McCormick reaper

Invented in 1831 made the Midwest the "bread basket" of the United States. Made it possible to for farmers to increase crop yields, reduce costs, and expand acreage.


The Erie Canal

Completed in 1825, made it possible to travel by boat from Albany New York to Buffalo located on Lake Erie the Erie Canal dramatically increase shipping business to New York Harbor so that New York soon became the largest port in the United States, but the canal was not directly related to food production


The transcontinental railroad

Completed in 1869 in Utah connected the east in the west coast of the United States by rail and revolutionize the settlement of the west.

Transformed California


The central valley

Associated with San Joaquin Valley the most productive agricultural area in California and extends inland from Bakersfield to Fresno


The Imperial Valley

Is an agricultural-based area located in south eastern and southern California and borders Mexico


The northern group of California native Americans

Included the Yurok and the Hoopa


The desert group of California native Americans

Included the Mojave and Serrano


The central group of California native Americans

Included the Maidu and the Miwok


Southern part of the coastal region group of California native Americans

The Chumash and Gabrielino


Why did Spain send explores to Alta California in the 16th century?

To discover a water passage that connected the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, starting with Cortez and 1553


Why do we celebrate Cinco de Mayo?

The victory of the Mexican militia in 1862 over the occupying French army in Mexico. Cinco de Mayo commemorates the victory of the poorly equipped Mexican militia over the occupying French army.


Bear flag revolt

In 1846 resulted in California settlers declaring their independence from Mexico and a bloodless coup after capturing Mexican general Mariano Vallejo in Sonoma California


The Los Angeles aqueduct

Completed in 1913 brought water from the Owens River Valley to Los Angeles. Was an engineering marvel that brought Eastern Sierra Nevada water 233 miles south from the Owens Valley through mountains and deserts to reservoirs in the San Fernando Valley


Problem of the Los Angeles aqueduct

Within decades it became apparent that the Owens River Valley water supplies were still in adequate for the rapidly expanding population of the Southern California area


Los Angeles Department of water and power address the immediate need for increasing water resources for Los Angeles by

Passing a bond measure to finance the diversion of water from streams feeding mono lake to the existing Los Angeles aqueduct


Chinese exclusion act

Discrimination against the Chinese intensified during the economic downturn in the 1870s. Prior to that Chinese immigration was encouraged for low paying labor for work in the mining and railroad industries.

Passed in 1882


California uses what to power it's electric generating plants

Natural gas.
In the majority of the United States coal is used to generate electricity


Greek civilization was dominated by

Athens and Sparta


Direct democracy was established in

Athens circa 507 BC


Alexander the great of Macedonia conquered what

Persia, Asia minor, and Egypt and established a world empire


Muslims contributions to institutions

Hospitals, medical schools, libraries, universities


Muslim contributions to agriculture

Cash crops, crop rotation, irrigation


Muslim contributions to mathematics

Algebra, algorithms, Arabic numerals, decimal point



Taxes on imports


Reasons for declaration of Independence

Lack of representation
Quartering of British soldiers
Boston massacre
The intolerable acts


Battle of Saratoga
Battle of Yorktown

Important revolutionary war battles


Mercantilism was the prevailing economic philosophy in the 16th and 17th centuries how did Adam Smith "the wealth of Nations" challenge the prevailing mercantilist view of trade and commerce?

Government chartered monopolies were to be replaced by free-trade agreements.

(The Mercantilist system held at wealth was fixed and that nation could only prosper through a strong government regulation of an economy through trade restrictions and tariffs)


Natural barriers of China

Himalayan mountains to the Southwest and the Gobi and Taklimakan desert to the north and west that made it difficult for invading armies to penetrate China.


Natural barriers of Egypt

Sahara desert, the Sinai peninsula, the Mediterranean and Red seas


The word renaissance refers to

A revival of classical Greek and Roman culture. During this period Italy (unlike nationstates of Europe) was compromised of independent city-states that wielded great economic and political power


The Roman empire's "breadbasket"

North Africa specifically Egypt. As the empire expanded Rome wasn't able to provide sufficient grain from the Italian peninsula to feed of the population at home and the military army abroad. Imported grain became a necessity


What religion the English colonist were primarily



What religion where the French and Spanish colonist?

Primarily Catholic


The Electoral college is based on -

State representation house and Senate and Congress. The 12th amendment included the provisions of the house of representatives elected the president of a candidate does not receive an absolute majority of the electoral vote


What was the Big Four?

The Big Four where the primary economic and political leaders behind the building of the transcontinental railroad.

They provided the financial backing for the Central Pacific Railroad which developed the western part of the route through the Sierras connecting Sacramento to Utah.


Who were the Big Four?

Leland Stanford governor of California and president of the Central Pacific.

Collis Huntington financier of the project and vice President of the railroad.

Charles Crocker director of the railroad

Mark Hopkins financier and coordinator of the project


Leland Stanford

Governor of California and president of the Central Pacific

One of the Big Four who built the Transcontinental Railroad


Collis Huntington

Financier of the project and vice President of the railroad.

One of the Big Four who built the Transcontinental Railroad


Charles Crocker

Director of the railroad

One of the Big Four who built the Transcontinental Railroad


Mark Hopkins

Financier and coordinator of the project.

One of the Big Four who built the Transcontinental Railroad


Social impact on California from the transcontinental railroad

Tremendous population growth in Southern California. The Southern Pacific Railroad became the largest land holder in the state.


Yurok Indians Who lived along the Northern Pacific Coast

Relied on salmon spawning and fishing


Two positive aspects of industrialization after civil war

Increase opportunities for nonfarm employment and unprecedented expansion in transportation


Two negative effects of industrialization after civil war

The accumulation of wealth in the hands of a small number of industrialists and the impact of unsafe working conditions in the factories


Industrialization after civil war

There was a rapid expansion of textile, steel, meat packing and other types of factories


Factory conditions during the industrialization movement

Were unsafe. Many hazards in the whirl of the machine and in the long hours of rapid pace of work, the constant pressure of work faster resulted in numerous accidents and lost limbs


During industrialization majority of textile workers

Were children


Alexander Graham Bell

Invented the telephone in 1876 after the Civil War


Thomas Edison

Invented the electric lightbulb in 1879 after the Civil War


The Great Migration

During World War II the population of California increased dramatically in search of jobs


Californians joined the arm forces during World War II

Approximately 750,000


300,000 African-Americans migrated from the south to California

The great migration resulted in large numbers of African-Americans working in factory jobs during the war.

This resulted in substantial African-American population growth in cities such as Los Angeles, San Diego, and Richmond


Racial prejudice of African Americans in California during WWII

Was prohibited in defense projects prejudice and discrimination were common place especially in housing and education. Restrictive covenants were legalized to prevent blacks and other minorities from home ownership in white areas.


Egyptian civilization began

Along the banks of the Nile river.
Egyptians depended on the river for sustaining their way of life


"Gift of the Nile"

What Egypt is referred to as, because of its history, culture, and religious beliefs are so closely tied to the river


The annual flooding of the Nile

Happened each September, provided huge amounts of fertile soil for the development of agriculture and abundant water for irrigation along the Nile Delta


Historically what best describes the Hindu caste system?

No amount of success would allow a person to move from one caste to another


Caste System

Originated in India (1500 BC) as part of the teachings of Hinduism.

Was outlawed in India in 1950


Four groups of the caste system

Priests and teachers

Rulers and Warriors

Merchants and artisans

Peasants and servants which was the lowest caste


The Sumerians

Where the first civilization in Mesopotamia and would have use the Tigris and Euphrates rivers for trade and commerce as well as areas surrounding the Persian Gulf.


The Assyrian Empire

Originated in the Hyland region of the upper Tigris river but grew to encompass the entire area of the Fertile Crescent. The Assyrians were a warrior nation who terrorized conquered people


The Indus River

The earliest Indian civilization the Harappa culture developed around the Indus River Valley and 2500 BC.


The Hellenistic Age

began with the death of Alexander the Great. (323 BC - 30 BC) Was a time for great economic growth and expansion


The Hellenistic Age characteristics

The fusion of Greek and eastern cultures.

An increase in international trade and commerce

The end to the Greek city-state system as a major political entity


The principal objective of Russia's desire to expand and the direction of the Ottoman Empire was

To gain permanent access to the Mediterranean sea


Ottoman empire

Was centered in Turkey whose borders include the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean sea to the south


Feudalism in the early middle ages

There were no formal countries but the fiefdom held economic and political power



Landowners during the middle ages


The three classes of the feudal society

The nobles
the clergy and
the peasants


Europe referred to as Christendom during the middle ages because

The church became the preserver of civilization in both political and religious life


Galileo Galilei

Was tried by the Inquisition in the 17th century for supporting heliocentric (sun centered) theory of the solar system


Isaac Newton

Was the most influential scientist of the enlightenment and is credited with discovering the theory of gravity as well as the Three Laws of Motion. He philosophized about the "natural order" of the universe and the laws of nature maintained order


What made it Necessary for the Industrial Revolution to begin in England

Existence of large quantities of coal and iron

Rapid increase in the English middle class

Large supply of cheap labor


The leading thinkers of the 18th century Enlightenment supported

Liberal, humanitarian, and scientific trends of thought


John Locke

An English philosopher believed that people made a contract with their government to protect natural rights. He did not believe in absolutism.

Locke's ideas influenced the United States Declaration of Independence


Economic system would be best facilitate that series of social Darwinism


Only the "fittest" members of society would survive


Spain's colonial power region

Southwest of North America and Florida


England's original colonial power region

The Atlantic coast of North America below Canada and set up the 13 colonies


France's original colonial power region

Controlled the Mississippi River region, the Louisiana territory, the Great Lakes, and Canada


The Netherlands original colonial power region

Controlled a small area in the Hudson river valley



Founded by James Oglethorpe became the last of the original 13 colonies. It was not founded as a result of religious persecution



Colonists stage the Boston tea party



The First Continental Congress meets to consider action against the British



The Boston massacre



Date of the Stamp Act. was a background cause of the American Revolution


Judicial review

A power not written into the Constitution but exercised by the Supreme Court as early as 1803 in the famous Marbury v Madison case.

Refers to the power of the federal courts to interpret the Constitution and to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional


Hamiltons financial plan favored

Passing an excise tax on whiskey

Favoring the industrial sector of the economy

Establishing a national currency


Best example of federalism as practiced in the early republic

Local governments are sovereign in matters of local concern


The northeast section of the United States was opposed to the war of 1812 because

The war was being fought because of the expansionist goals of the west


Positive result of the war of 1812

The new nation gained international respect as a country


Fundamental concepts of the Magna Carta in American law

The importance of written constitution

The right to due process of law

The protection against excessive bail


Uncle Tom's cabin

Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852 intensified both anti-slavery debate and abolitionist attitudes in the United States. profound effect on the national anti-slavery movement prior to the Civil War


During the Civil War one of the major military strategies of the north was based on geographically dividing the South at the

Mississippi river


President Johnson vetoed numerous radical Republican Congressional acts

President Andrew Johnson's reconstruction policy 1866 to 1867 of leniency to the defeated South angered and frustrated the radical Republicans in control of Congress


Chronological order of the emergence of each of the national party in the United States



The invention of barbed wire

Invention that had the most revolutionary impact on economic development of the American west during the 19th century


The vast majority of immigrants to the United States in the period from 1840 to 1880 primarily came from

Northern and Western Europe

Approximately 10 million people immigrated to the United States largely from Northern and Western Europe.

this wave of immigration was referred to as the "old" immigration


Central Pacific Railroad

One of the 2 companies awarded contracts by US govt to build transcontinental railroad. Broke ground in 1863 in Sacramento California


Best illustrates the influence of ancient Rome on the later development of European civilization

The legal code of France


Best describes one major cause of the decline of the Roman empire

Political instability and use of mercenary armies undermined the security of the empire


The Catholic Church most influence which developments in medieval Europe

They emergence of universities


The samurai tradition of feudal Japan most closely resembled what feature of medieval Europe

The code of chivalry of European knights


Major motive for the establishment of colonial Massachusetts Bay

To create a Bible Commonwealth


The government established by the articles of the confederation was designed primarily to

Protect the jurisdiction of the states


Shared function of the mission, the Presidio, and the Pueblo in early California history

To maintain social order


As a result of the Mexican war of 1840s California became a territory of the United States. What was the immediate cause of the war?

A boundary dispute between the United States and Mexico


What act established the basis for a substantial increase in the Asian population of California?

Immigration reform act of 1965


Best describe Kush ancient civilizations

Annual floods enriched lands used for farming and cattle raising

Timber and iron ore deposits provided the basis for a thriving iron industry

It's capital city it was strategically located on major trade routes

Riches from gold and emerald mines added to the kingdoms prosperity


1930s migration to California because of Dust Bowl

Great depression lead poor families to California

Dust Bowl disaster lead farmers to California



Conquered much of Asia minor and northern Mesopotamia



Established first lasting monotheism (under King Croesus) golden king


What way did geographic factors have an important influence on the development of Inca civilization between the 11th and 15th centuries?

The mountains of western South America were an impediment to building an empire, prompting the development of sophisticated engineering technologies



(in Spain and Spanish America) a fortified military settlement.



an American Indian settlement of the southwestern US, especially one consisting of multistoried adobe houses. Villages or towns of Native Americans


The discovery of gold in California in 1848 and resulting statehood in 1850 changed
the political landscape of the United States primarily because

There was a temporary resolution to the Freestate/slave state controversy



The Mexican war ended



The South lost control of the house (based on population)



a member of an indigenous people of North Africa. The majority of Berbers are settled farmers


Richard Nixon

Native Californian. 36th president of the United States.



Greatest percentage increase in migration to California


By the early 1960s California surpassed

New York as the most populous state


Passage of the civil rights legislation in California

Hiram Johnson as the governor of California the progressive movement failed to achieve this reform

Hiram Johnson was elected governor of California 1910


Cesar Chavez is most likely associated with political reforms in what

Unionization of migrant farm workers


The majority of native Californians lived in or near the... (tribes)

Central valley and western slopes of sierra Nevada


The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

1848 ended the Mexican war. handed over all lands between Texas and the Pacific to the United States including California


Leading city of Ancient Greece



Athens is credited with establishing

The worlds first democracy. And developing democratic institutions


Was a military state in ancient Greece



Sparta was unique in establishing

As state-based almost entirely on military preparedness.

It was believe that only through a strong military with the Spartan way of life survive


Legislative branch of government

Congress. Responsible for making laws


Executive branch of government

President. Is responsible for enforcing the laws


Judicial branch of government

Supreme court. Responsible for interpreting laws


Which branch of government has the power to declare war

Legislative branch


Middle passage

was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of Africans were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade.


At birth all Spartan males belonged

To the state and by the age of seven boys enrolled in the military style camps


According to most historians the first non-native people to explore the North American mainland were

The Vikings led by Leif Erickson


The birth of civilization is generally attributed to

A transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture in early Mesopotamia


The California industry that was most damage by spending cutbacks in the 1970s



The robber barons during the industrialization after the Civil War

John D Rockefeller, Cornelius Vanderbilt, Andrew Carnegie, JP Morgan

The four are considered the titans of industry, they amassed great wealth during the industrialization.


Industrialization post Civil War - (effect on middle class workers)

Raised the average worker's income by 50% between 1865 and 1900


Oil (petroleum)

Discovered in Pennsylvania in 1859.
Numerous products are made from petroleum and use gas/oil for manufacturing


Early political leader of the Democratic-Republicans believed in a strict constitution
Pro France

Thomas Jefferson


Early political Federalist believed in the concept of a strong central government ruled by manufacturing interests of the country

Alexander Hamilton


Early political party
Favored the rich and the wealthy

Federalist party


Early political party

developed a political philosophy that believed in the worth of the individual

The anti-federalists

(Thomas Jefferson)