Flashcards in History Deck (199):
The remission of temporal punishment for sin through the sale of indulgences
First European explorer to circumnavigate the globe
First European to reach coastal California
Vasco de Gama
First European to reach India by sea
Francisco de Coronado of Spain
In 1540 explored the area that was to become the southwest of the United States
Ponce de Leon
Explored Florida in 1513 and claimed the area for Spain
A government by ecclesiastical authorities - with civil authority residing in members of the clergy Puritan New England
The articles of confederation
Held the new nation together from 1781 to 1789.
Recognizing the military's difficulties in raising an army during the American Revolution the Articles provided for both declaring war and establishing a military
Provided for a strong central government was power over taxation, interstate commerce, and eliminating the veto power of state over legislation
One house legislature
Between the House and the Senate
the Constitution provided for this
The right to an impartial jury is an essential ingredient of a fair trial
How long does the president have to sign or veto a bill?
10 days (not including Sundays)
If the president receives a bill from Congress during the last 10 days of the legislative session and does not act on the bill the bill automatically dies
Best reason to eliminate a protective tariff
To encourage free trade
All products (foreign and domestic) can be traded without government regulations that restrict the free flow of goods
A direct result of the contested presidential election of 1876
Federal troops were withdrawn from the South ending Reconstruction
The 15th amendment
Guaranteed voting rights to African-American men passed by the radical Republicans in 1869
Passed in 1865 -Freed the slaves
(Cornerstone of Republican reconstruction legislation along with 14th amendment)
Passed in 1866 gave citizenship to the former slaves
(Cornerstone of the Republican reconstruction legislation along with amendment 13)
U.S. industrialization in the late 19th century
Was essentially dehumanizing and impersonal.
Technological innovations resulting in more efficient laborsaving machinery but as machines replace workers and factories grew larger the labor-management relationships became increasingly impersonal
What best describes how natural resources influence the culture of the California Chumash Indians?
The Chumash lived along the southern part of the coastal region, they used tar to waterproof their canoes
What best describes the primary purpose for establishing the mission system?
To maintain a self-sufficient agriculture economy that produced of food surplus. The mission system in California it was originally intended to be temporary
Term limit for California Supreme Court justices
What power does the governor of California possess but the president of the US does not possess?
Power to veto specific sections of us spending bill
Primary reason for dramatic population increase in Mexicans living in California?
The Mexicans replaced the Japanese as low-paid agricultural workers
Chronological order of American civilizations
Olmec, Mayan, Tolec, Aztec
First explorers, traders, and colonizers throughout the Mediterranean. (invented the first true alphabet)
With little land to farm the Phoenicians became sea traders and built the great trading cities of Tyre and Sidon.
Believes in reincarnation
What spread Lutheranism by simplifying the translation of the Bible from Latin to German?
The printing press, which was invented in the 15th century lead to a major changes in the economic political and social development of European countries. The ability to spread information quickly allowed Martin Luther to print the Bible and vernacular German
Credited with inventing the first printing press in 1451. The printing press had a profound and immediate impact on the political and social structure of Europe
System held that wealth was fixed and that the nation could only prosper through a strong government regulation of an economy three trade restrictions and tariffs.
The year of the Declaration of Independence was signed.
The declaration declared that the people had inalienable rights and the governments were set up to serve the people
The wealth of Nations
Book published by Adam Smith led to the concept of a free market economy without restrictive government regulation. Smith is generally considered the "father of capitalism"
A monumental religious temple built from hundreds of thousands of sun-dried bricks and stone. The word ziggurat means "mountain of God"
Generally have four stairways one for each side of the structure leading to the top platform for priest to perform rituals and placated the gods
The massive granite pyramids of Egypt
Solely as a resting place for the pharaoh, not used for priestly worship
Was signed in A.D. 1215 when a group of English Nobles forced King John to accept in writing limitations on the power of the king and limited central power, insured legal procedures, and became the source for English law and liberty
The Dred Scott Decision
Before the 14th amendment the Supreme Court ruled that Dred Scott (a slave) was not a citizen of the United States and therefore had no legal right to sue for his freedom. 1857
The stated purpose of the crusades
To win control of the Holy Land from the Muslims (infidels or non-Christians) lasted almost 2 centuries. expanded trade routes were a positive effect of the crusades on the west
Italian city-state related to the Medici family
The Renaissance began in Florence which the Medici family became very wealthy and powerful. Renowned artists such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo prospered under Lorenzo de Medici patronage
Roman territory is central to the importation of grains
Egypt's effect on the fall of the Roman Empire
The unstable food supply lead to increased domestic political unrest and political discontent. As such the breakdown of the food producing Providence and Egypt and north Africa became a contributing factor in the decline in the fall of the Roman Empire
First great west African trading empire, produce salt and gold
Spain England and France
The most significant European powers to colonize the New World
Primary factor in how England different from both the French and the Spanish colonies in the New World
The English migrated to the new world primarily at settlers and generally establish self-governing colonies
Primary result of the French and Indian war
Call the seven years war (1756–1763.) England wanted to expand their holdings in north America and take over France's lucrative fur trade. France relinquished control of Canada the Great Lakes and the upper Mississippi Valley to the British
Crucial factor that led to the American Revolution
England's aggressive taxation of the colonies to pay for the French and Indian war
"Join or Die"
Benjamin Franklin's cartoon first printed in 1754. What is the most famous political cartoon printed in colonial times. Franklin used initials on various parts of the snake to represent the colonies.
Central argument proposed in the Federalist papers.
The need for a strong central government to government country effectively written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay.
Slogan that the belief that the United States was ordained by God as a great nation and therefore was justified in expanding territorially from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific ocean.
"In God we trust"
Has appeared on US coins since 1864 during the Lincoln administration when he said "no nation can be strong except in the strength of God"
Battle of Antietam
In 1862 Union victory. Was crucial crucial to the morale of the North leads to Lincoln announcing the Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Vicksburg
May 18 - July 4, 1863 Vicksburg was a fort that controlled traffic on the Mississippi River. When Vicksburg fell to the union General Grant the Confederacy was split in two
Battle of Gettysburg
July 1–3 1863 Took place in a small Pennsylvania town, Union victory.
Union general Meade defeated Confederate General Lee and prevented Lee's second invasion of the north
The McCormick reaper
Invented in 1831 made the Midwest the "bread basket" of the United States. Made it possible to for farmers to increase crop yields, reduce costs, and expand acreage.
The Erie Canal
Completed in 1825, made it possible to travel by boat from Albany New York to Buffalo located on Lake Erie the Erie Canal dramatically increase shipping business to New York Harbor so that New York soon became the largest port in the United States, but the canal was not directly related to food production
The transcontinental railroad
Completed in 1869 in Utah connected the east in the west coast of the United States by rail and revolutionize the settlement of the west.
The central valley
Associated with San Joaquin Valley the most productive agricultural area in California and extends inland from Bakersfield to Fresno
The Imperial Valley
Is an agricultural-based area located in south eastern and southern California and borders Mexico
The northern group of California native Americans
Included the Yurok and the Hoopa
The desert group of California native Americans
Included the Mojave and Serrano
The central group of California native Americans
Included the Maidu and the Miwok
Southern part of the coastal region group of California native Americans
The Chumash and Gabrielino
Why did Spain send explores to Alta California in the 16th century?
To discover a water passage that connected the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, starting with Cortez and 1553
Why do we celebrate Cinco de Mayo?
The victory of the Mexican militia in 1862 over the occupying French army in Mexico. Cinco de Mayo commemorates the victory of the poorly equipped Mexican militia over the occupying French army.
Bear flag revolt
In 1846 resulted in California settlers declaring their independence from Mexico and a bloodless coup after capturing Mexican general Mariano Vallejo in Sonoma California
The Los Angeles aqueduct
Completed in 1913 brought water from the Owens River Valley to Los Angeles. Was an engineering marvel that brought Eastern Sierra Nevada water 233 miles south from the Owens Valley through mountains and deserts to reservoirs in the San Fernando Valley
Problem of the Los Angeles aqueduct
Within decades it became apparent that the Owens River Valley water supplies were still in adequate for the rapidly expanding population of the Southern California area
Los Angeles Department of water and power address the immediate need for increasing water resources for Los Angeles by
Passing a bond measure to finance the diversion of water from streams feeding mono lake to the existing Los Angeles aqueduct
Chinese exclusion act
Discrimination against the Chinese intensified during the economic downturn in the 1870s. Prior to that Chinese immigration was encouraged for low paying labor for work in the mining and railroad industries.
Passed in 1882
California uses what to power it's electric generating plants
In the majority of the United States coal is used to generate electricity
Greek civilization was dominated by
Athens and Sparta
Direct democracy was established in
Athens circa 507 BC
Alexander the great of Macedonia conquered what
Persia, Asia minor, and Egypt and established a world empire
Muslims contributions to institutions
Hospitals, medical schools, libraries, universities
Muslim contributions to agriculture
Cash crops, crop rotation, irrigation
Muslim contributions to mathematics
Algebra, algorithms, Arabic numerals, decimal point
Taxes on imports
Reasons for declaration of Independence
Lack of representation
Quartering of British soldiers
The intolerable acts
Battle of Saratoga
Battle of Yorktown
Important revolutionary war battles
Mercantilism was the prevailing economic philosophy in the 16th and 17th centuries how did Adam Smith "the wealth of Nations" challenge the prevailing mercantilist view of trade and commerce?
Government chartered monopolies were to be replaced by free-trade agreements.
(The Mercantilist system held at wealth was fixed and that nation could only prosper through a strong government regulation of an economy through trade restrictions and tariffs)
Natural barriers of China
Himalayan mountains to the Southwest and the Gobi and Taklimakan desert to the north and west that made it difficult for invading armies to penetrate China.
Natural barriers of Egypt
Sahara desert, the Sinai peninsula, the Mediterranean and Red seas
The word renaissance refers to
A revival of classical Greek and Roman culture. During this period Italy (unlike nationstates of Europe) was compromised of independent city-states that wielded great economic and political power
The Roman empire's "breadbasket"
North Africa specifically Egypt. As the empire expanded Rome wasn't able to provide sufficient grain from the Italian peninsula to feed of the population at home and the military army abroad. Imported grain became a necessity
What religion the English colonist were primarily
What religion where the French and Spanish colonist?
The Electoral college is based on -
State representation house and Senate and Congress. The 12th amendment included the provisions of the house of representatives elected the president of a candidate does not receive an absolute majority of the electoral vote
What was the Big Four?
The Big Four where the primary economic and political leaders behind the building of the transcontinental railroad.
They provided the financial backing for the Central Pacific Railroad which developed the western part of the route through the Sierras connecting Sacramento to Utah.
Who were the Big Four?
Leland Stanford governor of California and president of the Central Pacific.
Collis Huntington financier of the project and vice President of the railroad.
Charles Crocker director of the railroad
Mark Hopkins financier and coordinator of the project
Governor of California and president of the Central Pacific
One of the Big Four who built the Transcontinental Railroad
Financier of the project and vice President of the railroad.
One of the Big Four who built the Transcontinental Railroad
Director of the railroad
One of the Big Four who built the Transcontinental Railroad
Financier and coordinator of the project.
One of the Big Four who built the Transcontinental Railroad
Social impact on California from the transcontinental railroad
Tremendous population growth in Southern California. The Southern Pacific Railroad became the largest land holder in the state.
Yurok Indians Who lived along the Northern Pacific Coast
Relied on salmon spawning and fishing
Two positive aspects of industrialization after civil war
Increase opportunities for nonfarm employment and unprecedented expansion in transportation
Two negative effects of industrialization after civil war
The accumulation of wealth in the hands of a small number of industrialists and the impact of unsafe working conditions in the factories
Industrialization after civil war
There was a rapid expansion of textile, steel, meat packing and other types of factories
Factory conditions during the industrialization movement
Were unsafe. Many hazards in the whirl of the machine and in the long hours of rapid pace of work, the constant pressure of work faster resulted in numerous accidents and lost limbs
During industrialization majority of textile workers
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone in 1876 after the Civil War
Invented the electric lightbulb in 1879 after the Civil War
The Great Migration
During World War II the population of California increased dramatically in search of jobs
Californians joined the arm forces during World War II
300,000 African-Americans migrated from the south to California
The great migration resulted in large numbers of African-Americans working in factory jobs during the war.
This resulted in substantial African-American population growth in cities such as Los Angeles, San Diego, and Richmond
Racial prejudice of African Americans in California during WWII
Was prohibited in defense projects prejudice and discrimination were common place especially in housing and education. Restrictive covenants were legalized to prevent blacks and other minorities from home ownership in white areas.
Egyptian civilization began
Along the banks of the Nile river.
Egyptians depended on the river for sustaining their way of life
"Gift of the Nile"
What Egypt is referred to as, because of its history, culture, and religious beliefs are so closely tied to the river
The annual flooding of the Nile
Happened each September, provided huge amounts of fertile soil for the development of agriculture and abundant water for irrigation along the Nile Delta
Historically what best describes the Hindu caste system?
No amount of success would allow a person to move from one caste to another
Originated in India (1500 BC) as part of the teachings of Hinduism.
Was outlawed in India in 1950
Four groups of the caste system
Priests and teachers
Rulers and Warriors
Merchants and artisans
Peasants and servants which was the lowest caste
Where the first civilization in Mesopotamia and would have use the Tigris and Euphrates rivers for trade and commerce as well as areas surrounding the Persian Gulf.
The Assyrian Empire
Originated in the Hyland region of the upper Tigris river but grew to encompass the entire area of the Fertile Crescent. The Assyrians were a warrior nation who terrorized conquered people
The Indus River
The earliest Indian civilization the Harappa culture developed around the Indus River Valley and 2500 BC.
The Hellenistic Age
began with the death of Alexander the Great. (323 BC - 30 BC) Was a time for great economic growth and expansion
The Hellenistic Age characteristics
The fusion of Greek and eastern cultures.
An increase in international trade and commerce
The end to the Greek city-state system as a major political entity
The principal objective of Russia's desire to expand and the direction of the Ottoman Empire was
To gain permanent access to the Mediterranean sea
Was centered in Turkey whose borders include the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean sea to the south
Feudalism in the early middle ages
There were no formal countries but the fiefdom held economic and political power
Landowners during the middle ages
The three classes of the feudal society
the clergy and
Europe referred to as Christendom during the middle ages because
The church became the preserver of civilization in both political and religious life
Was tried by the Inquisition in the 17th century for supporting heliocentric (sun centered) theory of the solar system
Was the most influential scientist of the enlightenment and is credited with discovering the theory of gravity as well as the Three Laws of Motion. He philosophized about the "natural order" of the universe and the laws of nature maintained order
What made it Necessary for the Industrial Revolution to begin in England
Existence of large quantities of coal and iron
Rapid increase in the English middle class
Large supply of cheap labor
The leading thinkers of the 18th century Enlightenment supported
Liberal, humanitarian, and scientific trends of thought
An English philosopher believed that people made a contract with their government to protect natural rights. He did not believe in absolutism.
Locke's ideas influenced the United States Declaration of Independence
Economic system would be best facilitate that series of social Darwinism
Only the "fittest" members of society would survive
Spain's colonial power region
Southwest of North America and Florida
England's original colonial power region
The Atlantic coast of North America below Canada and set up the 13 colonies
France's original colonial power region
Controlled the Mississippi River region, the Louisiana territory, the Great Lakes, and Canada
The Netherlands original colonial power region
Controlled a small area in the Hudson river valley
Founded by James Oglethorpe became the last of the original 13 colonies. It was not founded as a result of religious persecution
Colonists stage the Boston tea party
The First Continental Congress meets to consider action against the British
The Boston massacre
Date of the Stamp Act. was a background cause of the American Revolution
A power not written into the Constitution but exercised by the Supreme Court as early as 1803 in the famous Marbury v Madison case.
Refers to the power of the federal courts to interpret the Constitution and to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional
Hamiltons financial plan favored
Passing an excise tax on whiskey
Favoring the industrial sector of the economy
Establishing a national currency
Best example of federalism as practiced in the early republic
Local governments are sovereign in matters of local concern
The northeast section of the United States was opposed to the war of 1812 because
The war was being fought because of the expansionist goals of the west
Positive result of the war of 1812
The new nation gained international respect as a country
Fundamental concepts of the Magna Carta in American law
The importance of written constitution
The right to due process of law
The protection against excessive bail
Uncle Tom's cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852 intensified both anti-slavery debate and abolitionist attitudes in the United States. profound effect on the national anti-slavery movement prior to the Civil War
During the Civil War one of the major military strategies of the north was based on geographically dividing the South at the
President Johnson vetoed numerous radical Republican Congressional acts
President Andrew Johnson's reconstruction policy 1866 to 1867 of leniency to the defeated South angered and frustrated the radical Republicans in control of Congress
Chronological order of the emergence of each of the national party in the United States
The invention of barbed wire
Invention that had the most revolutionary impact on economic development of the American west during the 19th century
The vast majority of immigrants to the United States in the period from 1840 to 1880 primarily came from
Northern and Western Europe
Approximately 10 million people immigrated to the United States largely from Northern and Western Europe.
this wave of immigration was referred to as the "old" immigration
Central Pacific Railroad
One of the 2 companies awarded contracts by US govt to build transcontinental railroad. Broke ground in 1863 in Sacramento California
Best illustrates the influence of ancient Rome on the later development of European civilization
The legal code of France
Best describes one major cause of the decline of the Roman empire
Political instability and use of mercenary armies undermined the security of the empire
The Catholic Church most influence which developments in medieval Europe
They emergence of universities
The samurai tradition of feudal Japan most closely resembled what feature of medieval Europe
The code of chivalry of European knights
Major motive for the establishment of colonial Massachusetts Bay
To create a Bible Commonwealth
The government established by the articles of the confederation was designed primarily to
Protect the jurisdiction of the states
Shared function of the mission, the Presidio, and the Pueblo in early California history
To maintain social order
As a result of the Mexican war of 1840s California became a territory of the United States. What was the immediate cause of the war?
A boundary dispute between the United States and Mexico
What act established the basis for a substantial increase in the Asian population of California?
Immigration reform act of 1965
Best describe Kush ancient civilizations
Annual floods enriched lands used for farming and cattle raising
Timber and iron ore deposits provided the basis for a thriving iron industry
It's capital city it was strategically located on major trade routes
Riches from gold and emerald mines added to the kingdoms prosperity
1930s migration to California because of Dust Bowl
Great depression lead poor families to California
Dust Bowl disaster lead farmers to California
Conquered much of Asia minor and northern Mesopotamia
Established first lasting monotheism (under King Croesus) golden king
What way did geographic factors have an important influence on the development of Inca civilization between the 11th and 15th centuries?
The mountains of western South America were an impediment to building an empire, prompting the development of sophisticated engineering technologies
(in Spain and Spanish America) a fortified military settlement.
an American Indian settlement of the southwestern US, especially one consisting of multistoried adobe houses. Villages or towns of Native Americans
The discovery of gold in California in 1848 and resulting statehood in 1850 changed
the political landscape of the United States primarily because
There was a temporary resolution to the Freestate/slave state controversy
The Mexican war ended
The South lost control of the house (based on population)
a member of an indigenous people of North Africa. The majority of Berbers are settled farmers
Native Californian. 36th president of the United States.
Greatest percentage increase in migration to California
By the early 1960s California surpassed
New York as the most populous state
Passage of the civil rights legislation in California
Hiram Johnson as the governor of California the progressive movement failed to achieve this reform
Hiram Johnson was elected governor of California 1910
Cesar Chavez is most likely associated with political reforms in what
Unionization of migrant farm workers
The majority of native Californians lived in or near the... (tribes)
Central valley and western slopes of sierra Nevada
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
1848 ended the Mexican war. handed over all lands between Texas and the Pacific to the United States including California
Leading city of Ancient Greece
Athens is credited with establishing
The worlds first democracy. And developing democratic institutions
Was a military state in ancient Greece
Sparta was unique in establishing
As state-based almost entirely on military preparedness.
It was believe that only through a strong military with the Spartan way of life survive
Legislative branch of government
Congress. Responsible for making laws
Executive branch of government
President. Is responsible for enforcing the laws
Judicial branch of government
Supreme court. Responsible for interpreting laws
Which branch of government has the power to declare war
was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of Africans were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade.
At birth all Spartan males belonged
To the state and by the age of seven boys enrolled in the military style camps
According to most historians the first non-native people to explore the North American mainland were
The Vikings led by Leif Erickson
The birth of civilization is generally attributed to
A transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture in early Mesopotamia
The California industry that was most damage by spending cutbacks in the 1970s
The robber barons during the industrialization after the Civil War
John D Rockefeller, Cornelius Vanderbilt, Andrew Carnegie, JP Morgan
The four are considered the titans of industry, they amassed great wealth during the industrialization.
Industrialization post Civil War - (effect on middle class workers)
Raised the average worker's income by 50% between 1865 and 1900
Discovered in Pennsylvania in 1859.
Numerous products are made from petroleum and use gas/oil for manufacturing
Early political leader of the Democratic-Republicans believed in a strict constitution
Early political Federalist believed in the concept of a strong central government ruled by manufacturing interests of the country
Early political party
Favored the rich and the wealthy