Flashcards in History Deck (76):
Name three reasons for the German revolution in 1914?
1. Failure of war
2. Hardship of war
3. Russian Revolution
What were the names of the naval bases where soldiers refused to take orders on 29 October?
Wilhelmshaven and then Kiel
When and why did the Kaiser abdicate?
He agreed to abdicate and feed to Holland on 9 November 1914 because the Allies said they would only negotiate with the representative of the people
Who became the new chancellor of Germany after the Kaiser fled?
Friedrich Ebert (SDP)
What effects occurred due to the German Revolution?
1. The new government signed Armistice
2. A new government took long to achieve and wasn't popular
When and where was the new Government made?
It was made in mid 1919s in the town of Weimar and was called the Weimar Republic
Why didn't they make the government in Berlin?
Because the Germans were still fighting there
What were the Terms of the Constitutions? (Reichstag)
- Members of the Reichstag were elected every 4 years
- All men and women over 20 could vote using a secret ballot instead of men over 25
- Proportional Representation
What were the Terms of the Constitutions? (Reichsrat)
- They could delay new laws unless over ruled
- New members were sent to local regions
What were the Terms of the Constitutions? (Chancellor)
- Choses ministers and ran the country
- Needed majority support of Reichstag to pass laws
What were the Terms of the Constitutions? (President)
- Took no part in day - day government
- Chose the chancellor
- Could dismiss Reichstag
- Could use Article 48
What was article 48?
A law that allows the president to pass laws without majority Reichstag, only used in times of crisis
Who became the first president?
Name Weaknesses of Constitution?
1. Proportional Representation
2. Article 48
What were terms of ToV?
- £6.6 Billion in reparations
- Lost all 11 colonies
- 100,000 in army
- 6 battleships, 6 cruisers, 12 destroyers and torpedo boats
- Lost extra Land
What is a Diktat?
A dictated agreement
What were the politicians who signed the treaty known as?
What were Economic Problems in 1918-23?
- Bankruptcy (cannot afford to pay price)
- Occupation of Ruhr (Cannot make money)
- Hyperinflation (Printing money makes it worthless)
What did hyperinflation do to help people?
1. Farmers profited from higher prices in food but paid more for goods
2. Businesses could pay of loans easy as they lost value
How did people suffer from Hyperinflation?
- Can't afford food (Shortages)
- Found difficult to buy what needed
- People with savings
Who replaced the mark with what and when?
Gustav Stresemann replaced it with the Rentenmark in September 1923
What are the right wing politics?
- Stable society
- Strong Government
- Like private ownership of land (capitalism)
What are the left wing politics?
- Change society fast
- Treat people equally (communism)
- Oppose Capitalism
Name a left and right wing party?
Left - Communists (KDP)
Right - NSDAP
What was Hitlers role in WW1?
He was a messenger
What was the name of the Party Hitler was sent to spy on at the end of the war?
The Germans Workers Party
Who started the German Workers Party?When?
Anton Drexler in 1919
Who did Hitler claim betrayed Germany?
Jews, Communists etc
How many members were there when Hitler found the DAP?
When did Hitler join the DAP?
What was Hitler left in charge of?
What were 3 ways in which propaganda was used by the Nazis ?
What changes did Hitler bring to the German Workers Party in 1920?
- Changed name to Nationalist Socialism German Workers Party (NSDAP)
- Adopted the Swastika for their symbol
- The straight arm salute
- Purchased the newspaper "The Peoples Observer"
When did Hitler force Anton Drexler aside?
What did Hitler do in August 1921?
Formed the SA a paramilitary force who were unemployed ex-soldiers. They wore Brown-shirts
What did the SA do?
They paraded in the streets and bullied people to show Hitlers strength. They also disrupted opposing party meetings
When was the Munich Putsch?
What was the Munich Putsch known as?
The Beer Hall Putsch
Who was the name of the Bavarian Prime Minister?
(Gustav Ritter) Von Kahr
Who was the head of the German army?
(Otto) Von Lossow
Who told Hitler that they would get the armies support?Why?
General Luddendorf because he was the previous army leader
How did the Munich Putsch fail?
They let Von Kahr and Lossow go who contacted the army
How many Nazi supporters died
14 were killed included the man next to Hitler and he was shot as well
What pact showed that the Germans wouldn't use war to solve disputes?
The Kellogg-Briand Pact
How much in loans did America give to Germany for the Dawes Plan?
What plan reduced reparations to £2 billion in 1929?
The Young Plan
Why did the French occupied the Ruhr?
The Germans were not paying reparations
How did the Germans respond to the Ruhr invasion?
What is a Dolchstoss?
A Stab in the Back
What is a Diktat?
A Dictated Agreement
What did the printing of money cause?
What is hyperinflation?
Where money loses its value when people print more money out?
What were the 2 extremist groups?
The Freikorps and Sparticist
What was the Kapp Putsch?
A revolution led by Dr Wolfgang Kapp which tried to overthrow the government. They were stopped by Passive Resistance from important companies.
What was the Sparticist Revolt?
A revolution led by Rosa Luxembourg and Karl Liebknecht to overthrow the government and Fredrich Ebert. They were stopped by the Freikorps who killed the 2 leaders
Who led the Sparticists?
Rosa Luxembourg and Karl Liebknecht
Who led the Freikorps?
Dr Wolfgang Kapp
Who was the leader of the SA?
What later changes did Hitler do to the Nazi party after being release from Prison
- New HQ in Munich
- Womens League
- Hitler Youth
How long in prison was Hitler sentenced to?
5 years but he sent 9 months
What event occurred in October 1929?
The Wall Street Crash
What did the Wall Street Crash need to?
The Great Depression
How did the WSC lead to the Great Depression?
America recalled its land which cause German banks to shut down increasing unemployment rates and more people without jobs
Who was the SDP party leader in 1929?
Who was the Centre Party Leader in 1929?
What happened between the SDP and Centre Party leaders?
They disliked each others views and Muller resigned whereas Bruning became chancellor (he wasn't popular)
What unpopular ideas did Bruning present in the Great Depression?
- Tax rises
- Unemployment Cuts
Who did the Nazis blame for the Great Depression?
The Jew, Communists, Weimar Politicians
Name 5 ways Nazis used terror to suppress opposition in 1934-1945?
- Police and Courts( Swapped judges with Nazis, unfair trail)
- The SS (Showed discipline)
- Gestapo (Secret police)
- Informers (Told the Gestapo about anti-Hitler ideas)
- Concentration Camps (Holding and labour only)
What ways did the Nazis use Propaganda?
Who was in charge of the propaganda in the Nazi Party?
When was the Reichstag fire?
What was the Reichstag Fire?
When the Reichstag fire burned down and Hitler blamed the communists. This caused the destruction of the Communist party and introduction of the Enabling act
What was the Enabling act?
Where Hitler was able to make laws without it going to the Reichstag
When was the Night of the Long Knives?