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Flashcards in History Deck (76):
1

Name three reasons for the German revolution in 1914?

1. Failure of war
2. Hardship of war
3. Russian Revolution

2

What were the names of the naval bases where soldiers refused to take orders on 29 October?

Wilhelmshaven and then Kiel

3

When and why did the Kaiser abdicate?

He agreed to abdicate and feed to Holland on 9 November 1914 because the Allies said they would only negotiate with the representative of the people

4

Who became the new chancellor of Germany after the Kaiser fled?

Friedrich Ebert (SDP)

5

What effects occurred due to the German Revolution?

1. The new government signed Armistice
2. A new government took long to achieve and wasn't popular

6

When and where was the new Government made?

It was made in mid 1919s in the town of Weimar and was called the Weimar Republic

7

Why didn't they make the government in Berlin?

Because the Germans were still fighting there

8

What were the Terms of the Constitutions? (Reichstag)

- Members of the Reichstag were elected every 4 years
- All men and women over 20 could vote using a secret ballot instead of men over 25
- Proportional Representation

9

What were the Terms of the Constitutions? (Reichsrat)

- They could delay new laws unless over ruled
- New members were sent to local regions

10

What were the Terms of the Constitutions? (Chancellor)

- Choses ministers and ran the country
- Needed majority support of Reichstag to pass laws

11

What were the Terms of the Constitutions? (President)

- Took no part in day - day government
- Chose the chancellor
- Could dismiss Reichstag
- Could use Article 48

12

What was article 48?

A law that allows the president to pass laws without majority Reichstag, only used in times of crisis

13

Who became the first president?

Friedrich Ebert

14

Name Weaknesses of Constitution?

1. Proportional Representation
2. Article 48

15

What were terms of ToV?

- £6.6 Billion in reparations
- Lost all 11 colonies
- 100,000 in army
- 6 battleships, 6 cruisers, 12 destroyers and torpedo boats
- Lost extra Land

16

What is a Diktat?

A dictated agreement

17

What were the politicians who signed the treaty known as?

November Criminals

18

What were Economic Problems in 1918-23?

- Bankruptcy (cannot afford to pay price)
- Occupation of Ruhr (Cannot make money)
- Hyperinflation (Printing money makes it worthless)

19

What did hyperinflation do to help people?

1. Farmers profited from higher prices in food but paid more for goods
2. Businesses could pay of loans easy as they lost value

20

How did people suffer from Hyperinflation?

- Can't afford food (Shortages)
- Found difficult to buy what needed
- People with savings

21

Who replaced the mark with what and when?

Gustav Stresemann replaced it with the Rentenmark in September 1923

22

What are the right wing politics?

- Stable society
- Strong Government
- Like private ownership of land (capitalism)
- Nationalists

23

What are the left wing politics?

- Change society fast
- Treat people equally (communism)
- Oppose Capitalism
- Internationalists

24

Name a left and right wing party?

Left - Communists (KDP)
Right - NSDAP

25

What was Hitlers role in WW1?

He was a messenger

26

What was the name of the Party Hitler was sent to spy on at the end of the war?

The Germans Workers Party

27

Who started the German Workers Party?When?

Anton Drexler in 1919

28

Who did Hitler claim betrayed Germany?

Jews, Communists etc

29

How many members were there when Hitler found the DAP?

6

30

When did Hitler join the DAP?

September 1919

31

What was Hitler left in charge of?

Propaganda

32

What were 3 ways in which propaganda was used by the Nazis ?

- Radio
- Posters
- Cinema

33

What changes did Hitler bring to the German Workers Party in 1920?

- Changed name to Nationalist Socialism German Workers Party (NSDAP)
- Adopted the Swastika for their symbol
- The straight arm salute
- Purchased the newspaper "The Peoples Observer"

34

When did Hitler force Anton Drexler aside?

July 1921

35

What did Hitler do in August 1921?

Formed the SA a paramilitary force who were unemployed ex-soldiers. They wore Brown-shirts

36

What did the SA do?

They paraded in the streets and bullied people to show Hitlers strength. They also disrupted opposing party meetings

37

When was the Munich Putsch?

November 1923

38

What was the Munich Putsch known as?

The Beer Hall Putsch

39

Who was the name of the Bavarian Prime Minister?

(Gustav Ritter) Von Kahr

40

Who was the head of the German army?

(Otto) Von Lossow

41

Who told Hitler that they would get the armies support?Why?

General Luddendorf because he was the previous army leader

42

How did the Munich Putsch fail?

They let Von Kahr and Lossow go who contacted the army

43

How many Nazi supporters died

14 were killed included the man next to Hitler and he was shot as well

44

What pact showed that the Germans wouldn't use war to solve disputes?

The Kellogg-Briand Pact

45

How much in loans did America give to Germany for the Dawes Plan?

800 million

46

What plan reduced reparations to £2 billion in 1929?

The Young Plan

47

Why did the French occupied the Ruhr?

The Germans were not paying reparations

48

How did the Germans respond to the Ruhr invasion?

Passive Resistance

49

What is a Dolchstoss?

A Stab in the Back

50

What is a Diktat?

A Dictated Agreement

51

What did the printing of money cause?

Hyperinflation

52

What is hyperinflation?

Where money loses its value when people print more money out?

53

What were the 2 extremist groups?

The Freikorps and Sparticist

54

What was the Kapp Putsch?

A revolution led by Dr Wolfgang Kapp which tried to overthrow the government. They were stopped by Passive Resistance from important companies.

55

What was the Sparticist Revolt?

A revolution led by Rosa Luxembourg and Karl Liebknecht to overthrow the government and Fredrich Ebert. They were stopped by the Freikorps who killed the 2 leaders

56

Who led the Sparticists?

Rosa Luxembourg and Karl Liebknecht

57

Who led the Freikorps?

Dr Wolfgang Kapp

58

Who was the leader of the SA?

Ernst Rohm

59

What later changes did Hitler do to the Nazi party after being release from Prison

- New HQ in Munich
- Womens League
- Hitler Youth
- SS

60

How long in prison was Hitler sentenced to?

5 years but he sent 9 months

61

What event occurred in October 1929?

The Wall Street Crash

62

What did the Wall Street Crash need to?

The Great Depression

63

How did the WSC lead to the Great Depression?

America recalled its land which cause German banks to shut down increasing unemployment rates and more people without jobs

64

Who was the SDP party leader in 1929?

Heinrich Brüning

65

Who was the Centre Party Leader in 1929?

Hermann Muller

66

What happened between the SDP and Centre Party leaders?

They disliked each others views and Muller resigned whereas Bruning became chancellor (he wasn't popular)

67

What unpopular ideas did Bruning present in the Great Depression?

- Tax rises
- Unemployment Cuts
Etc..

68

Who did the Nazis blame for the Great Depression?

The Jew, Communists, Weimar Politicians

69

Name 5 ways Nazis used terror to suppress opposition in 1934-1945?

- Police and Courts( Swapped judges with Nazis, unfair trail)
- The SS (Showed discipline)
- Gestapo (Secret police)
- Informers (Told the Gestapo about anti-Hitler ideas)
- Concentration Camps (Holding and labour only)

70

What ways did the Nazis use Propaganda?

- Posters
- Radio
- Cinema
- Books
- Olympics

71

Who was in charge of the propaganda in the Nazi Party?

Josep Goebbles

72

When was the Reichstag fire?

1933

73

What was the Reichstag Fire?

When the Reichstag fire burned down and Hitler blamed the communists. This caused the destruction of the Communist party and introduction of the Enabling act

74

What was the Enabling act?

Where Hitler was able to make laws without it going to the Reichstag

75

When was the Night of the Long Knives?

June 1934

76

What was the Night of the Long Knives

Where the SA where going agains Hitler so Hitler went SS to kill and arrest the SA. 400 SA were killed as well as their leader Ernst Rohm.