Flashcards in History Deck (63)
What is the ''Phenakistoscope''?
A spinning disc of figures that gives the illusion of movement when the viewer looks through a slot in the stationary disc
Who invented the ''Phenakistoscope'' and when?
Joseph Plateu and Simon Stampfer, 1882
What was Edwin. S. Porter Famous for?
Created ''intercutting'' that was first seen in ''The Great Robbery''
When was ''The Great Robbery'' released?
Which was one of the first film companies to become ''vertically integrated''?
What does ''vertically integrated'' mean?
Controlling production, distribution and exhibition of a film
Who was Louis Feuilade?
One of silent cinemas most important artists until the 1920's
What is the ''French Impressionism'' film-style?
Focused on pictoral beauty and intense psychological exploration
When was the French Impressionism popular?
When was the German Impressionism popular?
What is the ''German Impressionism'' film-style?
Expressed raw, extreme emotions, loud expressing of lines, staring eyes and choreographed movements
What did ''Controlling through ligitation'' mean?
The Edison company tried to force competition out of business by suing them for patent infrigement
When did ''Controlling through ligitation'' happen?
What was the ''Motion Picture Patents Company'' a result of?
AM and B and the Edison Company coming together after a long time of fighting
What did the ''Motion Picture Patents Company'' do?
Controlled production, distribution and exhibition
Who were the ''independents''?
The producers, distributors and exhibitors who were not willin to pay fees to the MPPC
What was the film ''The Jazz Singer'' famous for?
It was the first film that used synchronized sound
When was ''The Jazz Singer'' released?
What were some of the problems with ''sound-on'' film at the beginning?
Sensetive microphones that were hard to move, difficult to move tracks, scenes often had to be shot by multiple cameras in soundproof booths
How did France contribute to the international adaptation of sound?
They created a program of sound shots and a feature with post-dubbed songs
How did Great Britain contribute to the international adaptation of sound?
They added vandeville acts and prologues
How did Japan contribute to the international adaptation of sound?
Through ''talkies'' (katsuben) who were sitting in the theatre near the screen, explaining action and vocally portraying the characters
What is ''intercutting''?
Films moving back and forward between scenes
What is ''Analytical Editing''?
Editing breaks down a single space into separate framings, cutting closer to the action. Long shots show the entire space while close shots enlarge small objects and facial expressions
What is ''Contiguity Editing''?
When characters move out of a space at the end of a shot and reappear in the next room in the next shot
What is ''Eyeline Match''?
When a character looks off-screen and we know from the cameras position in the second shot that we are seeing what the character sees
What is ''The Star System''
''The Star System'' started when producers started signing actors for longer contracts so they would appear in more movies. This way movies started getting recognized through the name of the actors instead of just the brand name of a film
What was the ''Nickelodeon boom''?
A rapid multiplication of theatres that were usually in small stores, with one projector and that cost a ''nickel'' to enter. Movies became less novelty and more regular entertainment. This because they were cheap, non seasonal and opened for a bigger audience.
Who was the ''Nickelodeon boom'' a beginning for?
Warner Brothers - Carl Laemmle and Louis B. Mayer