What were Hippocrates’ key methods?
Hippocrates invented the theory of the four humours:
- black bile
- yellow bile
He believed that they needed to be balanced for the body to be in perfect health.
He also believed in Clinical Observation
And was the founder of the Hippocratic oath
Who was Hippocrates?
Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), who is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Who was Galen?
Galen worked in the 130AD -200AD and built upon Hippocrates’ theories although he did not dissect any bodies
What were Galen’s key theories or discoveries?
Galen discovered his “Theory of Opposites” which was to cure by giving a ‘wet’ illness a ‘dry’ opposite.
However he also believed that the human jawbone was in two pieces like that of an ape’s as he only dissected apes
he also believed that blood was made in the liver.
Why weer his ideas adopted by the Catholic Church?
Although he wasn’t a Christian his theories about the four humours did not give a cause and this cause could therefore be God.
When was the Black Death?
If the cause of the Black Death was God’s punishment, how was it prevented or treated?
The Flagellants believed that it was a punishment for their sins so they punished themselves via whipping and walking the streets. people also prayed and blessed those to prevent or treat.
If the cause of the Black Death was Bad Air (miasma theory), how was it prevented or treated?
It was believed that bad smells caused illness so disease could be prevented by always smelling something nice. It is theorised that “Ring o’ Roses” comes from the plague era with the ‘posy’ of scented flowers.
If the cause of the Black Death was the Impact of the Planets, how was it prevented or treated?
The French King was told by the Paris medical faculty that a conjunction of three planets in 1345 caused a “great pestilence of the air”
If the cause of the Black Death was the Theory of the Four Humours, how was it prevented or treated?
Because patients were becoming sick and coughing up mucus and phlegm it meant the body was trying to balance itself
(the four humours)
What was the role of women helping the sick?
women were the general healers and were midwives, surgeons and ‘wise-women’. however they could not become physicians.
Give an example of a medieval hospital and who they cared for:
St Bartholomew’s hospital in London (12th Century)
The hospital cared for the old and the rich but not those who were genuinely ill
Who set up charity hospitals?
Physicians often set up charity hospitals or hospitals where those who could afford it were treated
What could surgeons do or not do?
- let blood
- perform enemas
- perform minor surgery
- cut hair
- distribute medicine
They could not:
Why did the Church mean there was little change in Medieval medicine?
The Church controlled everything and everyone as the belief in God was so strong.
It also gave a cause for everything: God.
the Church owned land, money and controlled Government.
Why did Education mean there was little change in Medieval medicine?
the church controlled education of men and not women, physicians could only be trained with church approved texts by Hippocrates, Galen and Arab Physicians (as they also had a monotheistic religion and gave the cause as an omnipotent creator God).
Doctors were not encouraged to think for themselves and they had to follow the rules set out by Galen.
Books were rare and the church controlled who read them and which books could be read so that education was controlled.
Why did the respect for tradition mean there was little change in Medieval medicine?
The Church was the root of all tradition and people respected the traditions as they were set out by God and Religious figures.
Why did individuals mean there was little change in Medieval medicine?
Only a few tried to challenged general medicine as the church’s control was so stringent.
People did not try to prove theories wrong as they believed so strongly in God.
Also the current ideas were logical, reassuring and easily understandable.
Why did the Government mean there was little change in Medieval medicine?
The country was controlled by the King who was chosen by God and therefore the government agreed with the church’s rules and disagreeing with God’s power meant that they were committing treason
Who invented the printing press and when?
Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in 1439
What did the Printing Press enable?
The Printing Press enabled the widespread making of books and increased literacy rates. However the church still controlled books.
When was the Great Plague?
Give five details of the plague
- It is thought that it started in the parish of St Giles in the Fields outside of the walls of the city of London in 1664
- The hot summer may have caused it to become an epidemic
- Possibly over 100,00 people died
- By August 1665 it had reached a peak of 7000 deaths per week
- It died out during the cold winter.
How was it treated and prevented then?
Pretty much the same
When was the Renaissance?
Who was Thomas Sydenham, what did he believe, do differently and why did his ideas have a limited impact?
Sydenahm believed in Clinical Observation, he also believed that previous illnesses that the patient had could affect the patient’s current illness. He told his students to “Go to the bedside”.
He had a limited impact because he did not really treat them and people wanted miraculous cures for their ailments.
Who was William Harvey, what did he believe, do differently and why did his ideas have a limited impact?
William Harvey proved that blood was constantly re used and was always being pumped around the body by the heart. He proved Galen wrong as Galen thought he showed that the liver does not pump blood. he also proved that blood was only red and changed colour due to oxidisation .However he could not explain his findings.
HE WAS AN ANATOMIST AND NOT A DOCTOR
What was the book that William Harvey wrote called?
An Anatomical Account of the Motion of the Heart and the Blood
Who was Andreas Vesalius, what did he believe, do differently and why did his ideas have a limited impact?
He wrote many books upon the Human Anatomy and he helped prove Galen and Hippocrates’ theories wrong and he also found the correct use of the heart.
He proved that humans did not have many similarities with apes as Galen thought.
he also proved that the human skeletal system was the framework for the body.
However all his colleagues were Galenists
What was the book that Vesalius wrote called?
De Humani Corporius- anatomical drawings
When was the Industrial Revolution?
What are vaccines?
Vaccines are weakened or other forms of a disease that are injected to force the body to produce antibodies to fight off the disease. The body then knows how to respond when the disease is actually caught
Who was Edward Jenner?
Edward Jenner was known as the ‘Father of Immunology’ and he invented the Smallpox vaccine in 1796
-Dairy maids showed him their cowpox sores on their hands and told him they would not contract smallpox after they had cowpox