Flashcards in Cold War Deck (30)
Definition of Capitalism
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
Definition of Communism
a theory or system of social organisation in which all property is owned by the community and each person contributes and receives according to their ability and needs.
Why was there little trust between the USA and the USSR?
both believed that the world should adopt their political systems
What year did Britain and the US send supplies to help the Tsar to fight the communists?
In the 1930's why did the USSR want to form an alliance with Britain and France?
To help stop Hitler, however no alliance was made then.
During WW2 what did the USSR want the allies to do?
to set up a second front against Hitler. The battle of Stalingrad was lost and D-Day came two years too late for the Russians
What does the USSR stand for?
United Socialist Soviet Republics
When and where was the TEHRAN conference?
November 1943 (lasted a few weeks)
Tehran was the Capital of Persia (now Iran)
It was held in the Soviet Union's embassy in Tehran, Iran. It was the first of the World War II conferences of the "Big Three" Allied leaders (the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom).
Who was at the TEHRAN conference?
Franklin D. Roosevelt
What had happened prior to the TEHRAN conference?
-German army are in retreat
-Germany lost the battle of Stalingrad (30 mill Soviets died)
- the British have pushed the Germans out of North Africa
-the Germans were forced to break through Albania, Greece and Italy
-the Allied invasion of France has been planned ( for 1944-'Operation Overlord'
-Enigma Machine has been cracked
-The British were using inflatable tanks to trick the Luftwaffe at Dover
What happened at the TEHRAN conference?
-USA and Britain did not tell Stalin about the D day planned for 1944
-Roosevelt acted as a peacekeeper between Churchill and Stalin despite being an anti-communist but he wanted to jeopardise their future relationship.
-The meeting was to discuss what would happen after the war when the allies won
What did Stalin want from the TEHRAN conference?
Stalin wanted the support of the Allies to open a second front in the west. However he was deeply suspicious of the other two.
What did Churchill want from the TEHRAN conference?
He wanted to ensure that the Soviets did not expand their 'empire' further after the war but he knew he needed continued Soviet support on the Eastern front
What did Roosevelt want from the TEHRAN conference?
Roosevelt wanted to ensure a peaceful solution and was less mistrustful of Stalin than Churchill. However the USA and USSR's opposing political systems meant that this alliance was a marriage of convenience.
What was agreed at the TEHRAN conference?
-All leaders agreed that the defeat of Germany was still their first priority
-This ensured all sides carried on fighting despite the USSR's great losses and it focused GB and USA on planning D-Day.
-Stalin got a second front opened in the East.
-It was agreed that the Polish borders would be moved to benefit the USSR and the German border would be moved to become part of Poland
-Stalin also agreed to send in troops to help the USA against Japan once the war in Europe was over
-A new peace organisation that became the UN was also agreed.
Why was Churchill unhappy with the outcome of the TEHRAN conference?
He was against the spread of Communism but he realised the importance of the USSR's continued support.
What did the TEHRAN conference lead to?
-the Joint invasion of Normandy in June 1944
- two further peace conferences Yalta then Potsdam in 1945
Where and when was the YALTA conference?
Yalta- February 4th 1945
Yalta is in the Crimea (within the Soviet Union, now in Ukraine)
Who was at the YALTA conference?
Franklin D. Roosevelt
What happened prior to the YALTA conference?
-The Tehran conference
- All of France and Belgium was liberated by the allies
-In the east the Red Army were 65 km (40 mi) from Berlin, having already pushed back the Germans from Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, and most of Yugoslavia. By February, Germany only had loose control over the Netherlands, Norway, Denmark, Austria, Northern Italy, and Northern Yugoslavia.
What happened/ was agreed at the YALTA conference?
It was decided that:
-Germany was to be split four ways and what was part of Poland before the war would again become Poland.
-Each section of Germany would then be controlled by France, the USA, the USSR and Britain
-the United Nations was formed
-the countries in Eastern Europe would be allowed to choose its political standpoint and leaders after the war which is known as 'Self-Determination'
-Berlin would also be split into four.
When and where was the POTSDAM conference?
(Pre-end of war)
July 17th to August 2nd 1945
Potsdam is in Brandenburg, Germany which is on the border of Berlin ( A suburb of Berlin).
Who was at the POTSDAM conference?
Harry S. Truman
Churchill and then Clement Attlee ( they swapped half way through due to a landslide labour victory in the general election)
What happened/ was agreed at the POTSDAM conference?
- Germany was to be split into four and so was Berlin
-al people who spoke German and were German in Europe had to return to Germany
-the German army would be disbanded
-All leading Nazis would be put on trial and killed (only 19 of them)
-Stalin let the other European countries vote because he didn't care- he could rig the elections or just take over the countries
When and where was the 'Iron Curtain' phrase coined?
In Fulton, Missouri 1946 at a university Winston Churchill gave a graduation speech. He was on a tour promoting his new book. He used the metaphor 'Iron Curtain' to symbolise the literal separation of land controlled by Russia. He also used the terms East and West .
What did Churchill's 'Iron Curtain' speech mark?
the end of the marriage of convenience
What are Salami tactics?
to take small amounts at a time. First coined by Hungarian communist Rakosi
What is a sphere of influence?
not total control or invasion but the Russians took it to mean 'take over'
Dates of taking over of Eastern European countries?
Baltic States= 1945-1991 -absorbed back into the USSR
Bulgaria= 1946-1991- abolished the Monarchy
Poland=1947-1991 - the Polish elections were rigged
Czechoslovakia=1948- the communist party was in a coalition but took over
Hungary= 1947-1991- banned other political parties