Flashcards in History of Microbiology  Deck (30):
Although the existence of microorganisms was surmised long before, their discovery depended upon a technological development (the microscope) in order for scientists to __________.
A: make direct observations of microbes
B: publish their results
C: construct meaningful hypotheses concerning microbial activities
D: synthesize meaningful theories about the roles of microbes in disease
The person who described the "wee animalcules" was
A Ferdinand Cohn.
B Robert Hooke.
C Louis Pasteur.
D Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.
The first documented description of a microorganism was of a ________ by ________.
A yeast / Martinus Beijerinck
B mold / Robert Hooke
C fungus / Robert Koch
D bacterium / Ferdinand Cohn
________ was the first to describe microorganisms, while ________ was the first person to see bacteria.
A Antoni van Leeuwenhoek / Robert Hook
B Antoni van Leeuwenhoek / Robert Koch
C Robert Koch / Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
D Robert Hooke / Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
Pasteur's experiments refuting the theory of spontaneous generation were crucial to the advancement of the field of microbiology because they led to the development of all EXCEPT which of the following?
A the germ theory of disease
B optical isomers
C food preservation
D sterile technique
Louis Pasteur developed the vaccine(s) for
A anthrax, fowl cholera, and rabies.
B fowl cholera.
Microbial sterilization is used to
A kill bacteria but not necessarily viruses or other microbes.
B clean a work area.
C decrease the possibility of contaminants growing in a culture.
D kill all microbes in or on objects.
Which of the following is NOT an accomplishment of Louis Pasteur?
A developed the first rabies vaccine and treated thousands of individuals
B developed heat sterilization techniques that involved the creation of a specialized swan-necked flask
C determined that the alcohol-making process was mediated by microbial fermentation and thus refuted the theory of spontaneous generation
D developed enrichment culture techniques
The theory of spontaneous generation was refuted by the work of
A Robert Hooke.
B Robert Koch.
C Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.
D Louis Pasteur.
Predict how Pasteur's conclusions on spontaneous generation with swan flasks would have changed if he worked with and maintained the flasks in a sterile laminar flow hood.
A Pasteur's flasks never would have putrefied, and the experiment would not have refuted spontaneous generation.
B His incubation times would not have been sufficient to refute spontaneous generation.
C Sterilization of the swan flask solutions would not have been necessary to reject spontaneous generation. If he did sterilize the flasks, the spontaneous generation hypothesis would have been supported.
D Viruses would have still been present, and his conclusion would have been unchanged.
The step in Koch's postulates that most critically enabled him to determine that a particular microbe was the cause, and not an effect, of a particular disease was __________.
A the suspected pathogen must be present in all cases of the disease and absent from healthy animals
B cells from a pure culture of the suspected pathogen must cause the disease in a healthy susceptible animal
C the suspected pathogen must be grown in pure culture
D the suspected pathogen must be reisolated from the experimentally infected animal and is shown to be the same as the original microbe isolated
Explain the germ theory of disease.
A Some microorganisms can cause disease.
B Only pure cultures of microorganisms cause disease.
C All microorganisms can cause disease.
D Something in the air caused healthy people to become sick.
Arrange Koch's postulates in the correct order.
A pathogen present in all cases of disease; pathogen isolated in pure culture; pathogen able to infect healthy host; pathogen re-isolated
B pathogen present in all cases of disease; pathogen able to infect healthy host; pathogen isolated in pure culture; pathogen re-isolated
C pathogen isolated in pure culture; pathogen present in all cases of disease; pathogen re-isolated; pathogen able to infect healthy host
D pathogen present in all cases of disease; pathogen isolated in pure culture; pathogen re-isolated; pathogen able to infect healthy host
Fannie Hesse is credited with giving ________ the idea to use agar as a solidifying agent.
Transparent double-sided dishes used for growing microbes are most commonly called
Transparent double-sided dishes used for growing microbes are most commonly called
A Petri dishes.
B culture medium plates.
C sterilization plates.
D baker dishes.
A pure culture
A contains one microbial cell.
B is a population of identical cells.
C is sterile.
D is made of a clearly defined chemical medium.
Developments in the fields of immunology and medical microbiology were practical extensions of the work of
A Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.
B Joseph Lister.
C Sergei Winogradsky.
D Robert Koch.
Robert Koch contributed to the field of microbiology by being the first person to
A develop the tuberculin test.
B formulate four postulates for definitively linking a specific microorganism to a specific disease.
C use agar as a solidifying agent in growth media.
D develop the tuberculin test, formulate four postulates for definitively linking a specific microorganism to a specific disease, and use agar as a solidifying agent in growth media.
Louis Pasteur's most famous success was his work on
A cultivation of E. coli.
B the rabies vaccine.
C Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
D optical isomers.
Robert Koch received the 1905 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for
A identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the causative agent of tuberculosis.
B developing a smallpox vaccination.
C developing a smallpox vaccination, identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the causative agent of tuberculosis, and making an effective rabies vaccine.
D making an effective rabies vaccine.
The disease anthrax is caused by the pathogenic bacterium ________, which produces heat-resistant structures known as ________.
A Azotobacter chroococcum / endospores
B Bacillus anthracis / endospores
C Azotobacter chroococcum / plasmids
D Bacillus anthracis / plasmids
The bubonic plague was caused by Yersinia pestis, a highly pathogenic virus.
Treponema pallidum, a bacterium associated with syphilis, is not considered a pathogen because to date it remains unculturable in the lab, and, therefore, Koch's postulates are unable to be fulfilled.
Some bacteria can carry out interesting and important metabolisms not found in any macroorganism. Many of these reactions are crucial to life on Earth because __________.
A they provide energy for macroorganisms
B they prevent disease
C they recycle elements needed by living organisms
D they build soil for plant growth
Microbes evolve specific traits that increase their fitness in specific environments. Martinus Beijerinck developed the enrichment culture technique to isolate microbes from complex natural samples, like soil and water, by manipulating the __________.
A culture conditions and nutrients
B oxygen content of the culture
C organism's genes
D medium to be either a solid or a liquid
Which statement illustrates how the development of enrichment culture techniques by Beijerinck contributed to our knowledge of microbial diversity?
A Enrichment culture technique allows targeting of specific metabolic groups by using selective nutrients and incubation conditions.
B Enrichment culture technique allows targeting of specific metabolic groups by using common nutrients at atmospheric incubation conditions.
C Enrichment culture technique allows targeting of specific metabolic groups by using selective nutrients at atmospheric incubation conditions.
D Enrichment culture technique allows targeting of specific metabolic groups by using common nutrients but selective incubation conditions.
Martinus Beijerinck was the first to isolate
A green algae, certain nitrogen-fixing root nodule bacteria, and certain sulfate-reducing bacteria.
B certain nitrogen-fixing root nodule bacteria.
C certain sulfate-reducing bacteria.
D green algae.
A metabolic autotrophy.
B oxidation of organic compounds.
C oxidation of inorganic compounds.
D reduction of organic compounds.
________ was the first to identify a new form of autotrophy in which energy is obtained from oxidizing inorganic compounds called ________.
A Sergei Winogradsky / heteroautotrophy
B Sergei Winogradsky / chemolithotrophy
C Martinus Beijerinck / heteroautotrophy
D Martinus Beijerinck / chemolithotrophy