HIV - Testing & Clinical Management Flashcards Preview

Infectious Diseases > HIV - Testing & Clinical Management > Flashcards

Flashcards in HIV - Testing & Clinical Management Deck (17)
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1
Q

What is prevalence of HIV in Yorkshire

A
  • Sheffield - 1.1 in 1000

* Leeds - 2 in 1000

2
Q

What is the aids defining CD4 count

A

CD4 < 200

3
Q

What is Candidiasis?

A
  • Fungal infection
  • Unusual in healthy adults
  • 84-100% of PLWH affected
  • Risk factors: antibiotics, immunocompromised
4
Q

What is shingles

A

A painful blistering rash, malaise

  • Reactivation of Varicella Zoster Virus
  • Dermatomal distribution

RF: age, immunocompromised

5
Q

How do we test for HIV in the lab?

A

• 4th generation test:

Uses both HIV antibody to bind antigen and HIV antigens to bind to antibodies in the serum

  • Positive test if both antibody and antigen bound to.
  • 1 month period for exposure - 99.9% +ve
  • Cheap 5 pounds
6
Q

If test comes back +ve, what things can be done to help pt.

A
  • Call specialist for advice
  • Result given face to face in a confidential environment
  • Contact done by specialist tracing
7
Q

What is Kaposi’s sarcoma

A
  • Caused by human herpesvirus-8. Usually linked with HIV

* Spindle cells on biopsy

8
Q

What is Hairy leukoplakia

A
  • Caused by Epstein-Barr virus
  • White patches CANT be scraped off
  • Linked with HIV, smoking and immunosuppression
9
Q

What is HAART (treatment for HIV)

A

• Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy

Consists of 3 or more antiretroviral drugs - HIV mutates all the time so act on different points of mutation cycle.

10
Q

Name 2 Fusion Inhibitor drugs

A
  • Enfuvirtide

* Maraviroc

11
Q

NRTI drugs (4)

A
  • Zidovudine
  • Stavudine
  • Abacavir
  • Didanosine
12
Q

NNRTIs (3)

A
  • Nevirapine
  • Delaviridine
  • Etravirine
13
Q

Integrase Inhibitor drug (1)

A

• Raltegravir

14
Q

Protease Inhibitor drugs (4)

A
  • Ritonavir
  • Indinavir
  • Lopinavir
  • Tipranavir
15
Q

Why HIV becomes resistant to drugs

A
  • 1 mutation in every 2 new viruses produced
  • 1-10 billion new virus particles each day
  • 1-5 billion mutations per day
16
Q

Why is it so important not to miss a dose of HIV drug

A

1.) NON-ADHERENCE

• Drug level can drop low enough for HIV to replicate rapidly enough for resistance

17
Q

What is another way of HIV developing resistance

A

2.) Drug-Drug interactions: Many drugs interact with antiretrovirals and therefore cause subtherapeutic level