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Flashcards in Holderness Deck (17):


coastline in eastern England
it forms a subcell in sediment cell 2,
flambourough head in North made of chalk,
bridlington bay to spurn head, extensive zone of erosion and sediment transfer


flambourough head?

made of chalk
the sea is eroding and undercutting the base of the cliff leading to rockfalls.

over time the cliff retreats, forming wave cut platform and stack's.

waves that approach are refracted by the shape of coast. they are curved and low energy resulting in a deposited bay.


spurn head?

sediments are deposited here where the winds, waves and river estuary have created a large but fragile recurved spit.

grows at 10cm per year.(6km long)
been left to abandonment.


littoral cell? human influences at work?

open system with inputs, transfers and outputs of water and sediment.

presence of people along the coast. - increasing population.

interfering with natural process- unsuitable defences

global warming - increasing sea levels


hard engineering (sea wall) + its pros and cons?

sea walls - massive wall made of Rick to absorb waves ,
great for protecting valuable resources property and dense areas.
very expensive to build , foundations easily under mined
hornsea , withernsea


hard engineering (revetments) + pros and cons?

massive, made of concrete to reflect waves,
used it protect valuable resources, high risk property and dense populations,
expensive, damaged by strong waves,
easington gas terminal


hard engineering (gabions) +pros and cons?

wire cages holding smaller rocks,
cheaper version of revetments,
lightweight so only used in small scale,


soft engineering ( beach nourishment) pros and cons?

sand transported to replace losses by LSD,
appears natural looking,
expensive and may soon erode- possible ecological effects,
hornsea and mappleton


soft engineering (do nothing) pros and cons?

land no longer worth defending,
saves expenditure on defense,
may allow problems to get worse,
neck of spurn head


soft email(red lining) pros and cons?

withdrawal or prevention of planning permission for new development.
cost effective in long term,
unpopular with residents and business - politically tough


sustainable management (managed retreat)

incentives given through grants / buyouts to encourage relocation.
cost effective, engineering built, may reduce tides in the estuary.
difficult to argue politically.
suggested for hornsea in 94


sustainable management (coastal resilience)

partial flooding allows salt marsh and wetlands to adjust to sea water allowing erosion in some places helps sand dunes develop in others.
very cost effective environmentally , conservative of bird life
loss of agricultural productive land


main processes along the holderness coast?

longshore drift from hornsea to spurn head
rip currents


rock geology ?

chalk ( strong)
boulder clay(soft)


weather processes?

rain intensifies land based sub aerial processes.
saturated clay cliffs suffer increased run off leading to slumping and other forms of mass movement



dominant waves are from the north east also largest direction of fetch.


what's the problems with rip currents at holderness?

at particular places places , strong rip current may excavate ords- deep hollows, leading to catastrophic rate software cliff erosion