Flashcards in Hominins Deck (16)
central Africa, 7-6 mya cranial capacity 350, capacity for bipedalism
East Africa (Kenya) 6 mya, bipedal, arms and hands ape-like/ arboreal
East Africa (Ethiopia), 5.8-4.4 mya, 4ft tall 110lbs, Bipedal, foramen magnum more forward than apes, teeth enamel thicker than apes but thinner than later hominids, lived in forest.
Gracile, Lucy, 3.18 million years ago, Ethiopia, 3.5 ft tall, 65 lbs, ape like teeth, 450 cranial capacity.
Gracile, 2.5 mya, Ethiopia, 450 cranial capacity, early toolmaker.
Robust, 2.5-1 mya, south and east Africa, stocky, 410-530 cranial capacity, 4-5ft tall males 100lbs females 75lbs, adaptions to chew tough plants, large jaw, large molars (back teeth), large chewing muscle attachments ie. Sagittal crest, and zygomatic arch.
2.4 – 1.4 mya (million years ago), Africa, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania – fossil dated to 1.8 mya, some australopithecine traits, BUT also increasing capacity for bipedal locomotion, Larger brain (680 cc), “handy” man, Oldowan tool technology, 2. 6 mya, scavenging meat.
1.9 mya – 143, 000 years ago, significantly larger brain size, Fully bipedal, Beyond Africa, Controlled use of fire, Hunting, tall and robust, brain size average 1000 cc, large bony skull, thick brow ridges, traveled all over, In Dmanisi, Georgia 1.8 mya found skull without teeth so health problems, hunted baboons. Found cut marks on animal bones, in cold conditions used fire,
Gran Dolina, Spain, 800,000 ya, Stone tools, Brain size bigger than earlier H. erectus – up to 1150 cc
Archaic Homo Sapiens
Brain size of modern humans, Prominent brow ridge, Complex social behavior, Hunting, Butchering, Burial of dead, Speech?, Better tools
Homo Naledi (New Discovery)
Rising Star Cave (South Africa), Found in Sept 2013, 15 Individuals, Brain volume similar to Australopithecus but skull shape similar to Homo species, Dated (2017) to 236,000-335,000 years ago Burial practices because found in cavern
western Europe, middle east, Oval shaped brain case, strong brow ridges, brain size average 1600 cc, Robust, Muscular, Short and stocky, Complete bipeds, Hunting, lots of kill sites, Cliff jumping and Ambush hunting, Isotopic data, concept of space, burial rituals. Guy blinded in one eye found in Iraqi cave from 40-50 thousand years ago with healed injuries
125,000 – 30,000 – temporal overlap Neanderthals and archaic H. sapiens: Neanderthals in Europe and Middle East, Archaic H. sapiens in Africa, China, island of Java. First appear in Africa 200,000 years ago outside Africa later.
Acheulean Tool Technology
Mousterian Tool Technology
Neanderthals (smaller and lighter, more complex in variety than acheulean tools, compound tools)