hormonal cycle and cycle control Flashcards Preview

CSI > hormonal cycle and cycle control > Flashcards

Flashcards in hormonal cycle and cycle control Deck (29):
1

Menarche to menopause

how many oocytes at birth?
how many at menarche?

Menarche: 12.5
Menopause: 51.4

Birth: 1 million primordial follicles – oocyte arrested in prophase of first meiotic division
Menarche: 300,000-400,000 oocytes due to atresia

2

Hypothalamus

GnRH (pulsatile release; 70-90 min intervals-->drives cycle)
-produced by Arcuate nucleus
Pulsatile
70-90 minute intervals

3

Pituitary

Gonadotropins: FSH and LH
Anterior pituitary gland
Negative feedback

4

ovary has ??

Follicles
Estradiol:
Negative feedback effect on FSH
Positive feedback LH days 12-14 (otherwise negative feedback)
High level Estrogen
Progesterone: Negative feedback on FSH and LH

5

ovarian cells

FSH-->Granulosa cells-->Estradiol
LH-->Theca cells-->Androgen

6

Menstrual cycle

Follicular phase
Ovulation
Luteal phase

7

Menstrual cycle: follicular phase: Day 1

Day 1: first day of bleeding
Progesterone withdrawal
Prostaglandins released  contractions  ischemic pain (“cramping”)

8

Menstrual cycle: follicular phase

Hormones are all at their lowest point
Decrease in negative feedback-->FSH production
New follicles mature
Dominant follicle selected
Granulosa cells increase-->  estradiol

9

Menstrual cycle: follicular phase

Estradiol--> LH receptors on theca cells--> androgens  aromatase--> estradiol

Rising estradiol--> increase in negative feedback--> decrease in FSH/increase in LH

10

Dominant follicle

FSH binds to receptors on granulosa cells-->proliferation-->increased binding FSH-->estradiol

Follicle with the greatest # granulosa cells = dominant follicle = ovulation (the rest don't ovulate)

11

Menstrual cycle: ovulation

Estradiol  positive feedback  LH
LH surge day 11-13
Ovulation occurs 30-36 hours after
Oocyte is expelled from follicle
Follicle becomes corpus luteum (no egg)

12

Menstrual cycle: luteal phase

*Progesterone dominant* (from corpus luteum)
Maximum production 3-4 days after ovulation, lasts 11 days
If no implantation-->involution of CL (13-14 days)-->decline in progesterone
If + implantation-->hCG secreted-->maintains CL  continued progesterone secretion

Progesterone negative feedback for FSH and LH

13

cycle duration

Cycle typically 28 days
Follicular phase can vary
Luteal phase ALWAYS 14 days

14

changes due to hormones

Endometrium
Endocervix
Breasts
Vagina
Hypothalamic thermoregulating center

15

Menstruation: endometrium

-sloughed to basal level
Compact stroma cells
Short, narrow endometrial glands

16

Estrogen: cell growth

Follicular phase
Stroma thickens
Glands elongate (straight and tubular)
“proliferative” endometrium

17

Progesterone: differentiation

Luteal phase
Stroma becomes loose and edematous
Blood vessels twist and thicken
Glands become tortuous
“secretory” endometrium

18

Endocervix changes

Cervical mucus

Estradiol: *sperm capture, storage, transport
Thin
Clear
Watery

Progesterone:
Thick
Opaque
Tenacious (prevents sperm from being transferred)

19

Breast changes

in luteal phase after ovulation:
Progesterone
Stimulates acinar glands
Rounded configuration
Breast tenderness

20

Thermogenesis changes

Progesterone:
Increases body temp by .6 – 1 degree fahrenheit

21

Hypothalamus: hormonal control via meds

Leuoprolide
Ganirelix
Clomiphene citrate
(all deal with GnRH)

22

Leuoprolide

GnRH agonist
When continuous – decreases pulsatile release
Decreases FSH/LH (initial surge)

23

Ganirelix

GnRH antagonst
Decreases FSH/LH

24

Clomiphene citrate

Antagonist of estrogen at hypothalamus
Increases LH/FSH release
Causes ovulation (can cause multiple births)

25

Hormonal control: Ovary

Combination oral contraceptives
Progestins

26

Combination oral contraceptives

Estrogen and Progestin
-Progestin: suppression of LH secretion-->no ovulation
Thicken cervical mucus
Altered fallopian tube peristalsis
-Estrogen: suppression of FHS secretion-->no dominant follicle

27

Progestins

Thicken cervical mucus
Alters endometrial proliferation (“hostile” environment)
Some suppress ovulation (if high enough dose)
-Depo-Provera, Nexplanon

28

OMM

Viscerosomatics:
Ovaries: T10-T11 (lateralized)
Uterus: T9-L2
Fallopian tubes: T10-L2 (lateralized)
Parasympathetics:
Pelvic splanchnic nerves S2-S4
Lateral fallopian tubes: vagus nerve
Somatic dysfunction: related to pelvic pain

29

Middlemertz?

pain that happens mid-cycle