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Flashcards in shock Deck (27):

essentials of shock dx

Tachycardia—often first symptom
Oliguria (dec. urine output)
*AMS-very common*
*Peripheral hypoperfusion and impaired O2 delivery* : why tx is set up: to inc. perfusion
*shock is important because regulated tightly by CMS (compensated-need to meet medicare guidelines) prevent ppl from dying of shock


Flow chart for the basics of shock

Arterial blood flow can not keep up demand of tissues metabolic needs
-->resulting in hypoxia to the body as a whole
-->Resulting in anaerobic metabolism to kick in at peripheral tissues (bad!)
-->Resulting in lactic acidosis (lab test: lactate) *do not want!!* (TEST: prognostic indicator of "badness")


shock: AMS Marshall stat

60-70% nursing home pts w. AMS have UTI, may not have fever, but hypothermia: poor px


types of shock



hypovolemic shock

Decreased intravascular volume-Due to loss of blood, fluid, electrolytes (Clinical setting tells all here usually)
-Blood loss from whatever reason (trauma, ruptured ectopic pregnancy, GI bleed, etc)
-Loss of fluid and electrolytes (N/V/D)
-Body will compensate by vasoconstricting, but after *15% loss of volume*, shock sets in : Oliguria, AMS, cool extremities, diaphoresis, pale
*Narrow pulse pressure* (reduced SV, clinically relevant)
Decreased PCWP, CO, venous return; Elevated TPR (low cardiac output failure)
-Improves with fluids


Cardiogenic shock

Results from cardiac failure (MI, CHF)
Heart cannot maintain necessary CO
Defined as evidence of tissue hypoxia due to decreased CO in the presence of adequate intravascular volume.
-due to: MI, cardiomyopathy, valve dysfunction, arrhythmias (unstable VT, SVT (fine in younger pts, not in 70+)

-presentation: Oliguria, mental status changes, diaphoresis, cool extremities, jugular venous pressure is elevated, *pulmonary edema might be present with respiratory failure*, Low output failure (elev TPR, Low CO, venous return), Elev PCWP, BP improves with fluids


How to differ between cardiogenic and hypovolemic shock
(*test question*)

Cardiac *ECHO* (and history, duh!!)

*Hypovolemic shock: *LV will be small due to poor filling*, but maintains contractility
(doing what it should, not enough fluid to pump)*

*Cardiogenic shock: decrease in LV contractility
(problem with heart)*


Obstructive shock

Cardiac tamponade
Tension pneumothorax (needle first remember, not chest tube)
Massive PE


Distributive shock (septic, SIRS, neurogenic, anaphylaxis) (CMS worries about THIS one)

Also known as vasodilatory shock
Produces a decreases in systemic vascular resistance…resulting tissue hypoperfusion (volume is there, just very vasodilated)

Normal circulatory volume
Elevated CO, venous return (high output failure)
Vasodilation (warm dry skin) (not cold, pale, diaphoretic)



Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
Can occur from an infectious cause, or noninfectious (burns, pancreatitis, trauma, ischemia)
"baby sepsis"


SIRS: need to have at least 2 of the following:

-Temp more than 100.4, or less than 96.8
-HR more than 90
-RR more than 20 or hyperventilation with a CO2 on abg less than 32
-WBC more than 12 or less than 4 or greater than 10% bands


Septic shock

The new rage!!!!
SIRS + a source (UTI, pneumonia, cellultis, meningitis)
-Most common type of distributive, 20-50% mortality
-Risks are age, DM, immunosupression (AIDs, steroids), recent invasive procedures
-Most common due to gram negatives (E coli, Pseudomonas*, Klebsiella)
*Shock in setting of DIC from trauma often is from sepsis*


Neurogenic shock

Caused by traumatic spinal cord injury or by effects of an epidural, or spinal anesthetic
Loss of sympathetic tone and systemic vascular resistance
*Hypotension WITHOUT a compensatory tachycardia*

A benign other type of neurogenic shock which can result in syncope is “vasovagal syncope”—caused by pain, gastric dilatation, or fright, producing hypotension, bradycardia, and syncope. (may get better with laying down, in contrast to septic shock)


shock s/s

-Hypotension: may be masked in early stages by compensatory mechanisms such as tachycardia, increased cardiac contractility, and vasoconstriction
-Cool and mottled extremities
-Splanchnic vasoconstriction can lead to oliguria (lead to renal failure), bowel ischemia, hepatic dysfunction, MSOF, AMS is very very common


sepsis lab markers

*lactate* (draw serial lactates to monitor how well tx is working)


General treatment measures
what type of acid/base imbalance??

ABC’s with prompt intervention
-Respiratory failure not uncommon—due to existing *metabolic acidosis* (can't compensate with respiratory hyperventilation, still tachypnic)
-Intubation can reduce O2 demand of respiratory muscles and allow improved oxygen delivery to other hypoperfused tissues.

Monitor urinary output (bad if nothing coming out while giving fluids), possibly foley
IV fluids for hypotension


Hemorrhagic shock: Volume tx

IVF to an extent
BLOOD!: need the O2 carrying capacity vs. saline (just fluid volume, but body need O2 carrying capacity!!-->blood)
O neg (universal if no time)
Type and Cross if have time (30-45-60 min)


Hypovolemic shock volume tx

.9NS 1 L increments usually


Cardiogenic shock volume tx

.9NS 250ml boluses—be careful here not to fluid overload—pressers (inc. BP)

"baby boluses", not giving Liters here (contractility issue), the heart is failing, will put in CHF-->use pressors


Septic shock (i.e. SIRS + source) volume tx

30ml/kg .9NS to start off
WITHOUT exception
100 kg guy: 3L! (tons of fluid, hard to do)
*main enemy is hypotension, not necessarily HF*


*Early Goal Directed Therapy for septic shock*
(*test question*)

.9NS to achieve CVP (central venous pressure) 8-12 mm Hg
*Vasopressors* to achieve MAP 65 mm Hg or greater
PRBCs (packed RBCs) to achieve Hgb of 10 or greater
Results in lower mortality and morbidity


When fluids don’t work to maintain blood pressure ??

*Need central line to give* (not IV, localized inc. in pressure-->necrosis (story: lost leg)
Dobutamine, Norepinephrine (Levophed), vasopressin, dopamine

DO NOT place central line in artery: how to tell in vv vs. aa: ABG should be a lot different (higher O2) than values measured in vein (problem if same!! implies you are in artery)


Corticosteriods used in shock when due to ??

adrenal insufficiency
Otherwise, not shown to be beneficial


abx for ??

Septic shock

Vancomycin for MRSA in oldies


Narrow pulse pressure (reduced stroke volume)
Decreased PCWP
decreased CO
decreased venous return Elevated TPR

hypovolemic shock
low output failure


Normal circulatory volume
low PCWP
Elevated CO
elevated venous return

distributive shock (sepsis, SIRS, neurogenic, anaphylaxis)
high output failure


Low output failure
elevated TPR
Low CO
low venous return

cardiogenic shock
low output failure