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Flashcards in Hormones and brain function Deck (18):

What are the quaternary amine NTs?



What are the monoamine NTs?

- NE
- Epinephrine
- Dopamine

- 5-HT
- Melatonin


Describe alcohol's effect on the brain

- Biphasic, an initial stimulant phase followed by prolonged depressant phase
- Activates GABAa receptor (ionotropic)
- Chronic abuse of alcohol damages nerve cells and the frontal lobes are most effected
- Even a single binge can cause brain damage


Describe fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

- Distinctive changes in facial features, stunted growth and intellectual disability, irritability, tremors and hyperactivity
- Lack of infant corpus callosum
- Extremely stunted fetal PFC
- Slow migration of immature neurons
- High levels of GABAergic input from alcohol is deleterious in highly communicative stages of development
- Gray matter reduced and lateral ventricles enlarged (smaller brains)


What are neuroepithelial cells?

Neural stem cells of the ventricular zone that give rise to radial glia cells that further differentiate into neurons or glial cells. The cells migrate up, and layer up layer builds (the deepest layer is built first, and it's pushed down by newer cells)


Recall the three anatomical planes

- Horizontal (cross section, facing vertically)
- Sagittal (cross section, facing the side)
- Coronal (cross section, facing the front/back)


What areas of the basal forebrain do ACh projections arise from?

- Nucleus basalis
- Medial septal nucleus and nucleus of diagonal band


Contrast the hormonal functions for parts of the adrenal gland

Adrenal cortex: Salt and carbohydrate metabolism, inflammatory reaction

Adrenal medulla: emotional arousal


True or false. Hormones usually have steady secretion.


Hormones often have pulsatile secretion patterns (ie. in bursts)


What are three different chemical types of hormones?

Rapid acting (usually through second messenger)
- Protein (peptides)
- Amines (monoamine - modified amino acids)

Slow acting (longer lasting effects
- Steroids (four rings of carbon atoms)


What are tropic hormones (in the HPA axis)?

Pituitary hormones that affect other endocrine glands


What are releasing hormones (in the HPA axis)?

Used by the hypothalamus to control the pituitary release of tropic hormones.


What is the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis?

Anterior pituitary: adenohypophysis

Posterior pituitary: neurohypophysis


What is the pituitary infundibulum?

The pituitary stalk, connects the pituitary to the hypothalamus and contains blood vessels and axons (which only extend to the hypothalamus)


Which hormone is involved in the milk letting reflex?



When does stress occur?

When the perceived demands of a situation exceed the perceived capabilities for meeting the demands.


Describe the stress-brain loop

- Chronic stress from inadequate sleep, poor nutrition or emotional distress increases glucocorticoid levels
- Glucocorticoids cause cellular changes in the hippocampus that decrease regulation of cortisol and reduce attention, perception, short term memory , learning and word finding.


How does intimate partner violence during pregnancy effect glucocorticoid receptor promoter methylation in children?

IPV predicts increases GR promoter methylation (and therefore GR underexpression). This effect persists into adolescence.