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Flashcards in Hormones/Learning Quiz Deck (62):
1

what is learning

That process which manifests itself by adaptive change in individual behavior as the result of experience
Involved in the perfection and shaping of most behavior patterns and is an experimental tool in the study of behavior

2

classical conditioning

The formulation or strengthening of an association between a conditioned stimulus and a response,through repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus (CS) in a certain relationship with an unconditioned stimulus (UC) that originally elicits the response

3

what was Pavlov's Dog Experiment

EX of classical conditioning
Dog in harness is presented with meat powder ($1: an unconditioned stimulus) and simultaneously presented with another stimulus ($2: the conditioned stimulus)
Presentation of $2 over time resulted in salivation without $1

4

extinction

(loss of response)-can occur is $2 is continuously presented without reward ($1)

5

generalization

other similar stimuli may provoke the response

6

inhibition

extinction to one stimulus may be true for all

7

discrimination

between similar stimuli may be brought about by selectively reinforcing only one stimulus among trials with other similar stimuli

8

operant conditioning

aka instrumental conditioning
The strengthening of an active (operant) response by presenting a reinforcing stimulus if, and only if, the response occurs (response-reward)
The closeness in time between the performance of the response and the reward (known as contiguity) is very important, for lapse of several seconds may impede learning in most cases
Learning depends upon the strengthening of the response, R1 by reinforcing the stimulus S2
Reinforcement can fixed or variable

9

habituation

Simple learning NOT TO RESPOND to repeated stimuli which tend to be without significance in the life of the animal. This involves innate responses.
Thought to occur due to a lack of reinforcement following the response. (saddle on horses, collar on dogs)

10

Latent Learning

Learning without patent reward. The acquisition of the knowledge is not displayed at the time of learning, but lies latent. Closely related to curiosity and exploration

11

insight learning

Learning without patent reward. The acquisition of the knowledge is not displayed at the time of learning, but lies latent. Closely related to curiosity and exploration

12

imprinting

Young exposed first to a moving object other than the normal parent would follow that object and form an almost irreversible attachment to it (Lorenz, 1966)
Limited to short critical or sensitive period
Mostly irreversible
Involves learning the broad characteristics of the species rather than the particular characteristics of the parent, so that later the animal would direct its, sexual behavior towards an animal similar to the parent

13

chaining

Chaining is the performance of a series of operant responses in a sequence. Many dog owners inadvertently chain obedience commands, so the dog does a series of behaviors, such as sit, shake, lie down and roll over , all to the command “sit” because the owner always asked the dog to do the behaviors in the same order. Used for circus and show animals who must perform in a certain order.

14

conceptual learning

The highest type of learning (demands most intelligence of the animal)
The simplest form is the ability to respond to a common quality or characteristic shared by a number of different specific stimuli
EX: which of the following is not like the others?

15

motivation in animals

Biological necessity and response
Behavior attempts to satisfy needs or drive. Animals respond to a stimulus if it is adequate and the strength of the drive or need in question is high enough. For example eating food depends upon

16

innate responses

Why do certain stimuli, not previously encountered cause appropriate behaviors? Innate motivation??!!?
Many innate behaviors persist for certain typical times, such as suckling behavior, following mother, etc.

17

4 P's of proper training

Practice
Persistence
Patience
Praise

18

seven steps for training a behavior

1)Establish a relationship built on trust and cooperation
2)Decide on the behavior the animal will learn be sure the behavior is possible and not harmful
3)Plan an approximate schedule but allow for flexibility
4)Begin to train the animal and prompt the animal with cues. Use the ABC’s
A=Antecedent: Signal or cue that starts the behavior. Be sure to keep signals consistent
B=Behavior: Animal performs wanted behavior and this establishes criteria
C=Consequence: When animal performs behavior, provide reinforcement (treats/lovings)
5)Keep sessions short and fun. Be positive!
6)End on a high note every single time.
7)Communicate progress...keep notes

19

positive reinforcement

Good trainers are good at reinforcing
They are…
QUICK: they have great timing
GENEROUS: give lots of positive feedback
UNPREDICTABLE: they vary when, how much and how they reinforce
VARIABLE: they use many different reinforcers

20

reinforcement rules

Plan ahead to set up for success
Concentrate on and reinforce the things that the animal is doing right
Ignore “misbehaviors”
For long term results:
Train through all approximations
Do not be tempted by quick results
Lay the foundation and let proper learning happen
Do not micro-manage
Road vlocks occur when…
Approximations are too LARGE
Break things down into smaller steps
And you will begin to see progress
When an animal understands how to perform a behavior change its location
Changing the environment leads to difficulty in memory retrieval and will lead to lasting results

21

behavior chains

AKA: “Scalloping effect”
Training animal to perform tasks in a sequential order
Behaviors build upon each other
EX: to get a dog to give their paw to you, you could first teach the dog to sit. Then teach the dog to lift its paw

22

back chaining

Effective
Teach first what you want the animal to do last; then work backward
EX: you want an animal to sit, lie down, and play dead, in that order. So you train play dead first, then lie down, then sit.

23

four classes of hormones

1) protein and polypeptides
2) steroids
3) monoamines
4) lipid-based

24

protein and polypeptides hormone examples

Hypothalamus
Anterior pituitary
Posterior pituitary
Thyroid
Parathyroid
Pancreas
Stomach/Intestines
Adrenal Medulla

25

steroid hormone examples

Adrenal cortex
Testis
Ovaries
Placenta

26

monoamines hormone examples

Adrenal medulla
Hypothalamus
Pineal gland

27

lipid- based hormone examples

Lungs
Kidneys
Cells

28

general characteristics of hormones

Long latency of action-hrs to days (epinephrine is one exception)
Promote homeostasis-such as maintaining glucose or calcium levels in blood
Control metabolic processes-by regulating enzymes
Low concentration (high potency)-10-12M to 10-8M blood concentration are effective due to high affinity of hormone-receptor interaction
High specificity-due to differential binding of receptors
Closely regulated-neg (most hormones) or pos (steroids) feedback

29

pituitary gland secretion

luteinizing hormones, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone stimulating hormone, growth hormone

30

Luteinizing hormones:

spike in this hormone stimulates ovulation

31

Follicle stimulating hormone:

allows for egg follicle to develop prior to ovulation

32

Testosterone stimulating hormone:

allows for the development of testosterone in the body

33

Growth hormone:

allows you to grow!

34

hypothalamus hormone secretion

Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone

35

Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone

allows for the release and development of estrogen and testosterone
Etc; all hormones released from here are peptides

36

adrenals hormone secretion

Adrenalin and Corticosterone

37

adrenalin

allows you to do crazy things like lift up a car

38

corticosterone

regulatory hormone that maintains energy and immune function

39

pineal hormone secretion

melatonin

40

melatonin

allows for sleep

41

pancreas hormone secretion

insulin and glucagon

42

insulin

keeps blood sugar from getting too high

43

glucagon

keeps blood sugar from getting too low

44

thyroid hormone secretions

thyroxin and triiodothyronine

45

thyroxine

helps with cardiovascular and digestive functions

46

triiodothyronine

(aka T3) affects all processes in the body including growth and metabolism

47

parathyroid hormone secretions

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

48

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

regulates the amount of calcium in the blood

49

Testis and Ovaries hormone secretions

Estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone

50

estrogen

allows for ovulation and secondary sex characteristics of a female

51

progesterone

the “pregnancy hormone”; tells the body to stop cycling and prepare for a baby

52

Testosterone

allows for spermatogenesis and secondary sex characteristics of the male
All hormones released are steroids

53

placenta hormones released

all hormones released are steroids

54

thymus hormones released

thymosin

55

thymosin

produces T-Cells which are vital in the immune system and pathogen resistance

56

hermaphrodite

when an organism has reproductive organs normally associated with both males and female sexes
litters: when there is a female between two male piglets in utero due to the high exposure rate of testosterone
humans: when a female has her first child and it is a boy evolutionarily her body wants a female so there will be more estrogen during pregnancy

57

brain as an endocrine target

hormone actions on the brain is probably due to its effects on some aspect of a neurotransmitters metabolism
EX: by altering the amount of neurotransmitter available, or by changing the sensitivity of the postsynaptic membrane

58

five main categories of hormone effects on the central nervous system

1) Feedback: positive and negative feedback loops
Positive Feedback Loop: enhances changes to enable a system to move away from its equilibrium state and cause it to be more unstable
Negative Feedback Loop: buffers changes to allow a system to stay at an equilibrium and cause it to be more stable
2) Activation: activating effect on a specific pattern of behavior
3) Organization: organizing effect on the brain (inductive effect)
Typically at a specific stage during development
4)Neuromodulation: inhibition and/or facilitation of neural activity: Effects on adaptive behavior
5)General metabolic effects

59

Hypothalamic differentiation (brain differentiation)

hypothalamic GnRH surge center is necessary for initiation of the estrous cycle and follicular ovulation in the female

60

differentiation in males

Testosterone from the fetal testis reaches the brain
Testosterone is converted to estradiol by aromatase enzyme in the hypothalamus
Regression of the hypothalamic GnRH surge center by estradiol
Defeminization of the hypothalamus (no “surge center”)

61

differentiation in females

If synthesis of estradiol in the hypothalamus is responsible for defeminization of the surge center, why doesn’t the female (with a lot circulating estradiol) become “defeminized”?
Estradiol in female binds with a liver protein called alpha-fetoprotein the new complex cannot cross the blood brain carrier where the surge center is located; therefore, estradiol cannot affect the GnRH surge center

62

clicker training

type of training method that uses the repeated pairing of neutral stimulus (click) with a potent stimulus (treat) to stimulate a response.
1) charge up clicker-this allows the animal to understand the click comes with a reward
2) determine what behavior you want the animal to perform
3) break the behavior down into "bite sized" acts
4) reward every single act that goes toward the overall goal