Flashcards in Host defense-1 Deck (63)
functions in NORMAL host without prior expose to invading microbes
consists of antibody response(humoral) and lymphocyte mediated response (cell mediated) response-tailored to particular microbial infection and characterized by memory?
Adaptive Response (due to prior exposure to pathogen)
Adaptive, specific immune responses are induced by?
exposure to an antigen
Adaptive specific immune response is specific for?
inducing antigens and then immunologic memory is generated
Using the military analog as an example...describe the immune response and details that coincide with that response?
-Barrier to prevent invading pathogens
-innate immune defense standing guard
-Messenger to relay information to the organized lymphoid tissue(where the pathogens want to invade) and adaptive immune army
-Adaptive immune army to act as reinforcements to the innate immune defense
How long does innate immunity generally take?
Very quick! Within minutes or hours
How long does acquired Adaptive immunity take?
Longer than innate immunity, can take DAYS or even weeks depending on the specific antigens
Describe the diversity of innate immunity?
A limited number of germ line encoded receptors
Is there any memory responses for innate immunity?
Self/nonself discrimination of innate immunity?
Perfect; no microbe specific patterns in host
Soluble components of innate immunity?
Many antimicrobial peptides and proteins
Major cell types of innate immunity?
Phagocytes (monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils), natural killer (NK cells), dendritic cells
Specificity of adaptive immunity?
Highly specific, discriminates even minor differences in molecular structure, details of microbial sor non-microbial structure recognized with high specificity.
Diversity of adaptive immunity?
Highly diverse, a very large number of receptors arising from genetic recombination of receptor genese
Memory response from adaptive immunity?
Persistent memory with faster response of greater magnitude on subsequent infection
Self/nonself discrimination of adaptive immunity?
Very good, occasional failures of self/nonself discrimination result in autoimmune disease
Soluble components of blood or tissue fluids in adaptive immunity?
Major cell types of adaptive immunity?
T cells, B cells, antigen presenting cells
Innate immunity is comprised of?
-Natural barriers and normal flora
-Complement (which is technically in both innate and adaptive immunity)
Aspect of innate immunity that make one species innately susceptible and another resistant to certain infections?
What are some constitutional factor examples?
-Genetic: between species
-Age: the young more susceptible
-Metabolic factors: hypoadrenal and hyperthyroid states
-Environment: malnutrition, poor living conditions, overcrowding
3 different defenses against natural barriers and normal flora?
Natural mechanical barrier of skin?
Flow of fluid perspiration, sloughing off skin
Also epithelial cells joined by tight juntions
Natural Chemical barrier of skin?
Sebum (fatty acids, lactic acid, lysozyme)
Also antimicrobial peptides (defensins which are really short) effective against some microbes
Natural Microbiological barrier of skin?
Normal florida of the skin
Normal flora and their waste stimulates?
What are some things that decrease normal flora leaving the host more susceptible to disease?
-Antimicrobial drugs (allow for susceptibility because disease does not have to compete for attachment sites for essential nutrients because normal flora was taken out) "Double edge sword"
-Host factors such as reduced peristalsis, immune suppression
-Physical destruction from things such as irradiation and chemical burns
Cytokines/interferons major function of this type of interferons (IFN)
Type 1 interferons ("which are very important against viral infections")
Type types of Type 1 interferons, name them and their alternative name?
-Interferon alpha-Leukocyte interferon
-Interferon beta-Fibroblast interferon