Host defense-1 Flashcards Preview

RUSVM PID Exam#1 (Orange semester Fall 2016) > Host defense-1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Host defense-1 Deck (63)
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1

functions in NORMAL host without prior expose to invading microbes

Innate Response

2

consists of antibody response(humoral) and lymphocyte mediated response (cell mediated) response-tailored to particular microbial infection and characterized by memory?

Adaptive Response (due to prior exposure to pathogen)

3

Adaptive, specific immune responses are induced by?

exposure to an antigen

4

Adaptive specific immune response is specific for?

inducing antigens and then immunologic memory is generated

5

Using the military analog as an example...describe the immune response and details that coincide with that response?

-Invading pathogens

-Barrier to prevent invading pathogens

-innate immune defense standing guard

-Messenger to relay information to the organized lymphoid tissue(where the pathogens want to invade) and adaptive immune army

-Adaptive immune army to act as reinforcements to the innate immune defense



6

How long does innate immunity generally take?

Very quick! Within minutes or hours

7

How long does acquired Adaptive immunity take?

Longer than innate immunity, can take DAYS or even weeks depending on the specific antigens

8

Describe the diversity of innate immunity?

A limited number of germ line encoded receptors

9

Is there any memory responses for innate immunity?

None

10

Self/nonself discrimination of innate immunity?

Perfect; no microbe specific patterns in host

11

Soluble components of innate immunity?

Many antimicrobial peptides and proteins

12

Major cell types of innate immunity?

Phagocytes (monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils), natural killer (NK cells), dendritic cells

13

Specificity of adaptive immunity?

Highly specific, discriminates even minor differences in molecular structure, details of microbial sor non-microbial structure recognized with high specificity.

14

Diversity of adaptive immunity?

Highly diverse, a very large number of receptors arising from genetic recombination of receptor genese

15

Memory response from adaptive immunity?

Persistent memory with faster response of greater magnitude on subsequent infection

16

Self/nonself discrimination of adaptive immunity?

Very good, occasional failures of self/nonself discrimination result in autoimmune disease

17

Soluble components of blood or tissue fluids in adaptive immunity?

Antobodies

18

Major cell types of adaptive immunity?

T cells, B cells, antigen presenting cells

19

Innate immunity is comprised of?

-Constitutional factors
-Natural barriers and normal flora
-Cytokines/Interferons
-Phagocytosis
-Complement (which is technically in both innate and adaptive immunity)

20

Aspect of innate immunity that make one species innately susceptible and another resistant to certain infections?

Constitutional factors

21

What are some constitutional factor examples?

-Genetic: between species

-Age: the young more susceptible

-Metabolic factors: hypoadrenal and hyperthyroid states

-Neuroendocrine factors

-Environment: malnutrition, poor living conditions, overcrowding

22

3 different defenses against natural barriers and normal flora?

-Mechanical

-Chemical

-Microbiological

23

Natural mechanical barrier of skin?

Flow of fluid perspiration, sloughing off skin

Also epithelial cells joined by tight juntions

24

Natural Chemical barrier of skin?

Sebum (fatty acids, lactic acid, lysozyme)

Also antimicrobial peptides (defensins which are really short) effective against some microbes

25

Natural Microbiological barrier of skin?

Normal florida of the skin

26

Normal flora and their waste stimulates?

Immune stimulation

27

What are some things that decrease normal flora leaving the host more susceptible to disease?

-Antimicrobial drugs (allow for susceptibility because disease does not have to compete for attachment sites for essential nutrients because normal flora was taken out) "Double edge sword"

-Host factors such as reduced peristalsis, immune suppression

-Physical destruction from things such as irradiation and chemical burns

28

Cytokines/interferons major function of this type of interferons (IFN)

Type 1 interferons ("which are very important against viral infections")

29

Type types of Type 1 interferons, name them and their alternative name?

-Interferon alpha-Leukocyte interferon

-Interferon beta-Fibroblast interferon



30

Principle producer cells of interferon alpha and beta?

Leukocytes, fibroblasts, macrophages, epithelial cells