Flashcards in Hot and Cold Deck (32)
Ice Pack/Ice Cups (COLD) Indications
1. Decrease muscle spasm
2. Decrease pain
3. Decrease spasticity (stiff muscles)
4. Relieve swelling and edema
5. Prevent excessive tissue damage following injury
Ice Pack/Ice Cups (COLD) CONTRAINDICATIONS
1. Severe coronary artery disease
2. Severe hypertension
3. Some Rheumatoid conditions (Scleroderma, systemic Lupus, Erythamatosa (SLE)
4. Patients with cold hypersensitivity
(Cold uticaria - hives, itching and sweating with cold)
(Cold hemoglobinuria-hemoglobin in urine with cold)
5. Vasospastic disorders (Raynaud's disease)
Ice Pack/Ice (COLD) Cups Precautions
1. Paralyzed patients (lack of central heat control)
2. Coma Patients
3. Any cold on skin > 1 hour
4. Ice over superficial nerves (ex. peroneal nerve)
HEAT Indications (Hot packs, Paraffin bath, Hydrotherapy)
1. Increase Collagen extensibility
2. Decrease joint stiffness
3. relieve muscle spasm
4. Pain relief
5. Increase blood flow
6. As a warm up to assist with exercises
7. Possibly assist in resolving inflammation (especially in hydrotherapy, because it heats quickly)
1. Severe cardiac disease
2. Over malignancy
1. With insensitive patient (diabetes)
2. With spinal cord injured patients
Can also be used for open wound debridment. The water pressure, bubble and direction of force can be adjusted to appropriately accommodate the patient.
Contrast Baths Indications
1. Athletic Injuries
2. Leg Ulcers
3. Orthopedic problems (extremity joint stains or sprains)
Contrast Baths CONTRAINDICATIONS
1. Cardiovascular problems
2. Peripheral vascular diseases (arterial sclerosis)
3. Tendency toward hemorrhage
Contrast Baths Precautions
1. Loss of sensations
3. Hypersensitivity to temperature
Paraffin Bath Controls
Paraffin Bath temperature 125 - 130 F
Treatment time: 20 minutes
1. Dip X 6 times and wrap in a bag /w towel
2. Dip X 6 times and re-immerse
From cold to hot (55 -113F) depending on the desired effect.
Treatment Time: 20 minutes
Depending on are toe be treated (low boy or tall boy).
High air decreases mass of fluid.
High air increases sensation of fluid.
Water Pressure :
High pressure moves water faster, improving convection.
High pressure may be painful on wound, so be cautious.
Turbine Height and Direction:
Consider whether treated are needs to be exposed to water force.
Therapeutic Effects of Heat
- Increases the extensibility of collagen tissue. To produce residual elongation, you must stretch during or immediately after application of heat.
- Decrease joint stiffness
- Relieves muscle spas
- Pain relief
- Increase blood flow
- Possibly assist in resolution of inflammation
Therapeutic Effects of Cold
- Decrease muscle spasm
- Decrease pain and spasticity (muscle stiffness)
- Nerve fibers of different diameters and degrees of myelination appear to have different threshold or sensitivities to the effects of cold
- Decrease in Nerve Conduction Velocity
- Relieve swelling and edema (primarily through (vasoconstruction)
- Prevent excessive tissue damage following injury
Body Response to Cold
- Decreased capillary permeability
- Consensual response
2. Respiratory - Minimal effects
4. Decreased local metabolism
Body Response to Heat
1. Hyperemia (an excess of blood in the vessels)
2. Increased pulse
3. Respiratory - Minimal effects
4. Increases sweating
5. Increase in local metabolism
Local Effects to Heat
Look in packet, way to much shit to type
Standard Temperature Classifications
Cold 55 - 65 F (13-18C)
Cool 65-80 F (18-27C)
Tepid 80-94 F (27-34C)
Warm 94-98 F (34-37C)
Hot 98-104 F (37-40C)
Very Hot 104-113 (40-45C)
Pool Therapy Indications
1. Warm temperature is relaxing.
2. warm temperature can decrease the perception of pain.
3. Buoyancy can be useful
a. To decrease the strength necessary to move in
cases of sever weakness.
b. To decrease weight on diseased or damaged joints
4. Water can be used as a resistance during exercise.
5. Standing and walking balance can be improved.
6. Swimming can develop cardiovascular endurance.
Pool Therapy CONTRAINDICATIONS
1. Open wounds that can't be adequately covered.
2. Incontinence (unable to keep urine from leaking)
3. Patients with isolation precautions.
4. Uncontrolled Seizures (anybody unsafe in water)
5. Severe Cardiac Disease
Pool Therapy Precautions
1. Multiple Sclerosis (totally wipes them out)
2. Possible infection sites such as ostomies, G-Tubes
3. Patients with orthostatic hypotension
Ice Packs, Ice Massage & Cryotherapy Controls
3-60 minutes (3-15 minutes for ice massage to numb. 20-30 minutes for typical treatment. Limit to 60 minutes to prevent frostbit).
Cold ice baths is 55-65 F
Ice Pack machines are 10-15 F
Wet towels wrapped around ice cool more quickly. Dry towels are better tolerated by patients who need to have an area cooled for several hours.
Superficial Heating and Cooling Agents
Superficial heating and cooling agents produce temperature changes in the skin and underlying subcutaneous tissue to a depth of approximately 1 cm.
Heating agents include:
- Hot packs
- Paraffin baths
Cooling agents include:
- Ice packs
- Ice massage
Hydrotherapy Physiological Effects
Used for the same effects and purposes as superficial heat plus:
Mechanical Effects of Hydrotherapy
Agitation - serves as mechanical stimulation to skin receptors, which may explain its sedative and analgesic effect.
May act as a counterirritant or stimulus to large sensory afferents thus blocking pain input.
Hydrotherapy and Wound Care
Hydrotherapy is an effective method of debriding a wound to remove necrotic material and of cleansing through the addition of a bactericidal agent.
Mechanical effects stimulate the formation of granulation tissue and in conjunction with appropriate water temperature, assist in softening tissues and stimulates circulation to affected areas.
Increase in local circulation raises the level of )2, antibodies, leukocytes, and nutrition supplied to the tissue and enhances the removal of metabodies.
Increases the availability of antibiotics to the wound area, which assist in diminishing and preventing infection.
Sedative and analgesic effect.
Is the therapeutic application of any substance to the body which results in withdrawal of heat from the body, thereby lowering tissue temperature.
Intermittent cold application and stretching of active exercise.
Principles of exercising:
a. All exercise must be active only
b. All exercise must be pain free
c. All exercise must be performed smoothly without limp
or abnormal motion
d. Exercise must be aggressively progressive but without
Contrast Bath Controls
Hot (105 -110F) water baths are alternated with COLD (55-65F)