How Science Works Flashcards Preview

Biology > How Science Works > Flashcards

Flashcards in How Science Works Deck (12):

Explain how choosing volunteers of a similar age improved an investigation.

Age affects the risk of disease
also it is a control variable


Describe how the student would show that reducing sugars were present in a

1. Add Benedict’s;
2. Heat;
3. Red shows reducing sugar present;


how many variables/ conditions need to be studied before a conclusion can be made?

more than 2


How does severe diarrhoea (watery faeces) occur?

Lower water potential of
Osmosis down a WP
Less water reabsorbed


Explain how standard deviations of these
mean values would help you to interpret the data

1. Standard deviation gives a measure of
2. More standard deviations overlap, the less likely it is
that differences are


Explain how the standard deviation helps in the interpretation of data

1. see spread of data
2. Overlap = no difference and not significant;
3. Low SD means results more reliable /


Why would experiments be repeated?

1. to get concordant results
2. makes mean more reliable


Describe how you would use a 1.0 mol dm–3 solution of sucrose to produce 30 cm3 of a 0.15 mol dm–3 solution of sucrose.

Add 4.5 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm–3 solution to 25.5 cm3
(distilled) water;
0.15dm-3 x 100 = 15cm3
15% of 30 = 4.5


Suggest three reasons why the percentage of people vaccinated decreased between

1. fewer cases of disease
2. fear of side effects
3. insufficient vaccine available


The percentage of the population vaccinated does not need to be 100% to be effective in preventing the spread of a disease. Suggest why

1. more people immune o pathogen
2. so unvaccinated people are less likely to contact infected people


Explain why taking repeated readings increases the reliability of the results

1. Allows for anomalies to be identified
2. Allows a mean to be calculated
3. Effect of variation in data to be minimised


Why would taking more readings improve the graph of the results?

1. Line of best fit is more reliable
2. Intercept of line is more reliable


1. Can plot standard deviation bars
2. To show the variance of the results