Flashcards in Human Behavior Interdependence II Deck (61):
Writing about stressful events resulted in improvement in what?
RA and asthma symptoms
How does stress to cold viruses?
you are more susceptible if you are stressed
Psychological stress can affect disease T or F?
(blank) is the study of interactions b/w behavior, the nervous system and the immune system.
What are the components to PNI?
immune system and endocrine effect the brain and nervous system which in turn affect behavior and visa versa.
What three systems are just one integrated system?
immune system, endocrine system, nervous system
What do myeoblasts turn into?
basophils, eosinophils, monocyte, neutrophils
What 2 things can monocytes turn into?
macrophages and dendritic cells
What are the 2 innate defenses?
surface barriers (skin, mucous membranes)
internal defenses (phagocytes, fever, NK, antimicrobial proteins, inflammation)
What are the 2 adaptive defenses?
Is inflammation prevalent in chronic diseases?
Experiencing a stressful situation, as perceived by the brain, results in the stimulation of what 2 axes?
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic adrenal medullary (SAM) axis.
When we are stressed, we release glucocorticoids, where did these come from?
ACTH is released by pituitary gland which results in production of glucocorticoids
The SAM axis can be activated by stimulation of the adrenal medulla to produce the catecholamines (blank and blank) , as well as by 'hard-wiring', through sympathetic-nervous-system innervation of lymphoid organs.
adrenaline and noradrenaline
(blank) have receptors for stress hormones that are produced by the pituitary and adrenal glands and can be modulated by binding of these hormones to their respective receptors.
(blank) produced at nerve endings can module immune-cell function by binding its receptor at the surface of cells within lymphoid organs. How is this bidirectional?
because cytokines produced immune cells can modulate the activity of the hypothalamus.
Classic condition; give an example
pavlovs condition of inflammation
T or F
Pavlov conditioned mice to have an inflammatory response in response to saccharin by utilizing LPS to induce an inflammation and using saccharin as the conditioned stimulus
What does LPS do?
stimulates liver macrophaes, TNF alph goes from liver to the brain
What does TNF alpha bind to and what does this generate?
binds to hypothalamic cells
releases neurohormnes that generate nerve impulses that influence behavior
i.e., animal studies link (blank) to acute exposure to electric shocks, social defeat, maternal separation, handling, loud noise, and crowding
i.e., human studies link (blank) to final exams, sleep deprivation, divorce, bereavement, Alzheimer caregiving, negative emotions
suppression of immune system
suppression of immune system
Is there a definitive causal link between stress and immunity?
no but many correlations
What could the correlations between stress and immunity be linked to?
mediating variables, such as stress affecting behavior patterns (eating, drinking, social interactions) which then affect immunity
T or F
Stress can delay wound healing
What research proved this?
dental students with a wound inflicted healed slower before an exam than on summer vacation
cargivers healed slower than controls
What is the possible mechanism for slow healing under stress?
reduced production of IL-1
(blank) adversely affect immune and endocrine function.
What did research show about painful stimuli given to animals and the immune system?
painful stimuli suppressed NK cell activity, lymphocyte proliferation to mitogens, specific antibody production, and mixed lymphocyte reaction AND elevated beta-endorphin and corticosterone level
What are surgeries affects on immunity? How do you fix this?
anesthesia can block this pain and thus reduce this problem
What are some key behavioral risk factors for surgery?
smoking, alcohol, drug abuse, and nutrition
Distressed patients are more likely to have (blank) and (blank) disturbances.
sleep and appetite
Deep sleep is associated with release of (blank) a hormone that is associated with wound healing
Partial sleep loss on night can result in elevated (blank) levels the next evening
T or F
postoperative sleep is often disturbed by the physiological stress of surgery, pain, opoid use, and the hospital enviromen
What 2 things are predictative of poorer outcomes after surgery?
How do you deal with this?
fear or stress
(greater pain, longer hospital stays, more postoperative complications, and poorer treatment adherence)
How do you increase speed of recovery after surgery?
T or F
Elderly women with depression have an increased risk of mortality similar to that conferred by other cardiovascular risk factors like HTN, smoking, hyperlipidemia, obesity and diabetes
(blank) symptoms are linked with coronary heart disease.
depressive (4.5 X greater risk)
Chronic depressed mood has been found to be linked to (blank) risk
(blank) is linked to risk for:
osteoporosis (lower bone mineral density)
decline in muscle strength
reduced rehab effectiveness
reduced diabetic management
(blank) can provoke increases in HR and BP, enhance secretion of stress-related hormones and dysregulates a range of immunological activities
(blank) plays a role in the development of CHD and contributes to poorer prognosis after acute coronary events, including death and recurrent ischemic events
Anxiety (3 X increase risk)
(blank) symptoms were associated with significantly increased risk of MI and CHD-related death over a 20-year period in women who were homemakers
How does chronic anger and hostility impact health?
(2X increased risk of CV mortality)
A large prospective study of employees found that hostility predicted the total number of long-term medically certified absences over a 4 year period for women or men?
Do relaxation techniques and hypnosis help with immunity?
yes they do, in fact in a study with medical student, hypnosis and relaxation increased T lymphocytes
What did teaching relaxation to older adults show?
significant increases in NK cell activity and decreases in HSV antibody titers (consistent with improved immune function)
T or F
Subjects with Stage I or II malignant melanoma in a 6-week structured group intervention that included stress management showed reduced psychological distress and significant immunological change
T or F
Undergraduates randomly assigned to a group where they wrote about traumatic/troubling events demonstrated a higher mitogen response following baseline, and had fewer visits to the student health center compared to controls
A study teaching stress management to a group of HIV-seropositive men showed changes in a battery of immunological measures.
T or F
the study showed that HIV-seropositive men did not show changes in a battery of immunological measures
Is social isolation good for immunity?
nope (isolation is comparable to those of smoking, blood pressure, blood lipids, obesity and physical activity)
T or F
marital quality has been associated with immune and endocrine function
What did the ACE (adverse childhood experiences) studies show?
showed that abuse (emotional, physical sexual) and household dysfunction (domestic violence, parental mental illness, parental substance abuse, parental crime, marital discord/divorce) was associated with health outcomes in mid-life
T or F
adverse childhood experiences are "vastly more common than recognized or acknowledged"
How many subjects of the ACE studies had 1 or more ACEs
2 or more?
4 or more?
half of subjects
Exposure to one category of ACE gives you an (blank) % likelihood of exposure to another category. Are these commonly assess by MDs?
T or F
Adverse childhood experiences “have a powerful relation to adult health a half-century later”
If you have 4 or more aces what are you susceptible for?
2.2 fold increased risk of ischemic heart disease
If you have 7 or more aces what are you susceptible for?
3.6 fold increased risk of IHD after adjustment for CAD risk factors
Relationship between childhood trauma and IHD is more strongly mediated by (blank) than by traditional cardiac risk factors
psychological factors (depression, anger)
Adverse childhood events increases risk for other problems.... such as???
obesity, somatic, smoking, injected drugs