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Flashcards in Neurotransmission 2 - Kenyon Deck (120):
1

How many families of neurotransmitter receptors are there? What are they called?

4 families
1. Ionotropic ligand gated ion channels
2. Tyrosine kinase enzyme-linked receptors
3. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs)
4. Intracellular receptors for unconvential neurotransmitters.

2

What is the difference between ionotropic and inotropic?

Ionotropic: single transmembrane protein binding a neurotransmitter that acts as the channel for cation movement.

Inotropic: ability of muscle to generate force at a given length.

3

Are ionotropic receptors made from a specific set of subunits or a combination?

A combination of many!

4

What the ionotropic receptors for glutamate? (3)

1. AMPA
2. NMDA
3. Kainate

5

Do GPCRs directly or indirectly influence opening/closing of ion channels?

Both!

6

Are GPCRs 1TM or 7TM?

1TM

7

Can GPCRs elicit multiple intracellular effects?

yes!

8

What is an orphan receptor?

A 7TM receptor that looks like a metabotropic receptor but the neurotranmisster is unknown.

9

Describe the function of a metabotropic (GPCR) receptor?

1. Nuerotransmitter binds.
2. g-protein activated
3.G protein subunits or intracellular messengers modulate ion channels
4. Ions flow across membrane
5. Ion channel opens.

10

Describe the function of an ionotropic receptor?

1. neurotransmitter binds
2. Channel opens
3. Ions flow across the membrane.

11

Can you form an ionotropic receptor by mixing and matching subunits?

Yes! Can make hundreds of receptors from subunit pool.

12

Are there many or few metabotropic receptors?

Few, <10

13

Do ionotropic receptors have a limited or extensive set of intracellular responses?
What is the primary effect?

Limited response, mostly changes membrane potential.

14

Allowing (blank) ions through an ionotropic receptor will increase the number of intracellular effects?

Calcium!

15

Do metabotropic receptors have limited or extensive intracellular effects?

"UNLIMITED" biochemical responses!
GPCR->signaling cascade systems

16

Activation of a (blank) receptor will change a neuron's likelihood of firing an action potential

Metabotropic

17

Why does Ca influx alter the function of ionotropic receptors?

Calcium is central in all vitally controlled cell processess--death, growth, continuation of life, etc.

18

Do tyrosine kinase enzyme linked receptors directly or indirectly open and close ion channels?

Indirectly!
(Enzyme-LINKED)

19

The (blank) enzyme involved in nitric oxide synthesis dependent on (blank) ions.

NO synthase
Calcium

20

What are the four general groups of small molecule neurotransmitters?

1. ACh
2. Amino acids
3. Biogenic amines
4. Purines

21

What are the amino acid NT's? (4)

1. Glutamate
2. Aspartate
3. GABA
4. Glycine

22

What are the biogenic amines (3)?

1. Catecholemines (NEpi, Epi)
2. Serotonin (5-HT)
3. Histamine

23

What are the purines (4)?

ATP, ADP, AMP, Adenosine

24

Gastrin releasing peptide is involved in remembering (blank).

Fearful situations

25

What is the general postsynaptic effect of ACh?

Excitatory

26

What is the general postsynaptic effect of glutamate?

Excitatory

27

What is the general postsynaptic effect of GABA?

Inhibitory

28

What is the general postsynaptic effect of glycine?

Inhibitory

29

What is the general postsynaptic effect of catecholemines?

Excitatoryo

30

What are the precursors to ACh?

Choline, acetyl CoA

31

what is the rate limiting step in ACh synth?

CAT

32

How is AcH removed?

AChEase

33

How are glutamate, GABA, glycine removed?

Transporters

34

How are catecholemines removed?

Transporters and MAO

35

What is the general postsynaptic effect of 5-Ht?

Excitatory

36

What is the general postsynaptic effect of Histamine?

Excitatory

37

What is the general postsynaptic effect of ATP?

Excitatory

38

What is the general postsynaptic effect of neuropeptides?

Excitatory and inhibitory

39

What is the precursor to 5-Ht?

Tryptophan

40

What is the rate limiting step in 5-HT synth?

tryptophan hydroxylase

41

How is 5-Ht removed?

Transporters and MAO

42

How is histamine removed?

Transporters

43

What is the precursor to ATP?

ADP

44

How is ATP removed?

Hydrolysis to ADP and adenosine

45

What are the precursors to neuropeptides?

amino acids

46

How are neuropeptides removed?

proteases

47

What are the precursors to endocannabinoids?

Membrane lipids

48

what is the rate limiting step for endocannibinoids?

enzymatic mod of lipids

49

what is the precursor for NO?

ARRRRginine!

50

What is the rate limiting step for NO? What ion does it require?

NO synthase, requires Ca

51

How is NO removed?

Spontaneous oxidation

52

At what types of synapes do you find ACh? (3)

1. Neuromuscular junction
2. Preganglionic autonomic ganglia
3. Post-ganglionic parasympathetic neurons

53

How is choline recovered from the broken down ACH in the synaptic cleft?

via Na/choline transporter

54

What are the two general classes of ionotropic nicotinic ACH receptor (nAChR)?

1. Muscle nAChR
2. Neuronal nAChR

55

How many types of muscle nAChR are there?

2: one adult and one fetal

56

Are there multiple or few neuronal nAChR?

ZILLIONS

57

How many subunits are required to form an nAChR?

4-5

58

ACh, nicotine, curare, and bungaratoxin, d-tubocurarine, and succinylcholine bind at which subunit on muscle nAChR?

alpha 1

59

Does hexamethonium bind at muscle or neuronal nAChR?

Nueronal

60

Are muscarinic AChR metabotropic or ionotropic?

Metabotropic

61

In what types of tissue do you find muscarinic AChR? (3)

1. Neurons
2. Smooth muscle
3. Cardiac muscle

62

Do muscarinic AChR's mediate normal neuromuscular transmission?

NO

63

What is the priniciple fast excitatory neurotransmitter?

Glutamate

64

What transporter collects glutamate?

EAAT's.

65

What cell type actively collects glutamate?

Glial cells

66

What are the three artificial agonists?

1. AMPA
2. NMDA
3. Kainate

67

Do all artificial agonists pass cations?

YES

68

Do all artificial agonists pass Ca?

only some

69

Do all artificial agonists mediate EPSPs?

YES

70

Different receptors show different kinetics?

Most certainly

71

What ions does the NMDA pore allow to pass? (3)

(Na, K, and Ca)

72

What change to cell polarization will NDMA receptors have

they can depolarize the cell and and activate Ca processes.

73

What ion blocks the NMDA channel?

MG

74

Is activation of the NMDA receptor sufficient for alteration of resting potential?

NO, that Mg messes everything up

75

Describe the process of NMDA receptor activation and subsequent cellular responses?

1. Glutamate binds NMDA, but nothing happens yet.
2. AMPA generally doesn't let calcium in. However, binding glutamate to NMDA lets AMPA let Na in
3. Cell depolarizes from NA influx
4. Ca comes in through NMDA
5. Ca in the cell can now go do its thang

76

AMPA depolarization leads to (blank) potentiation

Long-term

77

What effect does AMPA have on EPSP?

it makes them larger

78

where is there vesicle fusion during AMPA activation?

both pre and post synaptically

79

Is the power of a glutamate synapse adjustable?

Yes!

80

What changes does a tetanic stimultion have on EPSPs?

it makes them LARGER

81

The combo of (blank and blank) receptors is necessary for Ca entry.

NMDA
AMPA

82

Ca in the cell can cause long term (blank) or (blank)

potentiation
depression

83

What is the effect of high extracellular glutamate on nerve cells?

IT KILLS THEM

84

What ion precedes cell death via glutatmate/

Ca, blocks glutamate receptors

85

Are glutamate receptors metabotropic or ionotropic?

Metabotropic

86

What special neural cell type has glutamate receptors?

Astrocytes!

87

Which two GABA receptors are ionotropic? what ion do they mediate?

GABA A
GABA C
Chloride ions

88

what class of drug is a common ionotropic GABA agonist?

Benzo's

89

What GABA receptor is metabotropic?

GABA B

90

do ionotropic GABA receptors effect EPSP or IPSP?

IPSP, they're inhibitory!

91

What is the enzyme that pumps GABA into vesicles presynaptically?

VIATT: Vesicular inhibitory Amino Acid Transporter

92

The effects of alcohol are mediated by what neurotransmitter? The ionotropic or metabotropic variety?

GABA, ionotropic

93

Activation of the inhibitory neuron (that released GABA) stops the action potentials in the (blank)-synaptic neuron but does not (blank)-polarize the postsynaptic neuron. The action potentials stop because the depolarization to threshold is (blanked).

1. post-synaptic
2. hyperpolarize
3.slowed

94

Glycine activates ionotropic (blank) ion channels

Cl

95

What blocks glycine receptors in the spinal cord?

Strychnine

96

What are the 5 biogenic amines?

1. Dopamine
2.NEpi
3. Epi
4.histamine
5. serotonin

97

What does the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase indicate about a neuron?

THEY RELEASE THE CATECHOLEMINES

98

How is dopamine inactivated?

Na-dependent uptake (DAT)

99

What drug inhibits dopamine uptake?

COCAINE

100

What class of receptor are dopamine receptors?

Metabotropic

101

Dopaminergic neurons stem from what region of the brain?

originate in substantia nigra, continue to the corpus striatum (caudate and putamen)

102

What processes are dopamine involved in?

1. Coordination of movement (PARKINSON)
2. Motivation
3. Reward
4. Reinforcement
5. Addiction

103

Where is NEpi released?

sympathetic post-ganglionic neurons

104

What inactivates Nepi?

NET; also transports dopamine

105

what inhibits NET?

Amphetamines, man!

106

What class of receptor are alpha and beta adrenergic receptors?

metabotropic

107

Noradrenergic neurons in locus coeruleus project to forebrain and cause (blank)

sleep wakefulness, attention, feeding.

108

Adrenergic neurons containing Epi are located in lower brainstem (medulla). They project to (blank) and (blank). The function is not clear.

hypothalamus and thalamus

109

what class of receptor is histamine?

metabotropic

110

Histamine is involved in what three processes?

1. Allergic response
2. Pain
3. itch

111

Serotonin is important in:

1. psych disorders
2. pain (centrally and peripherally)
3. GI tract

112

Prozac does what?

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

113

5-HT3 class of receptors are metabo or ionotropic?

Ionotropic, nonselective cation channels

114

Purine transmission is important where?

Periphery (smooth muscle)
Nervous system (mechanosensation and pain)

115

What enzyme creates a "soup" of purines?

extracellular ecto-5' nucleotidases

116

Nueropeptide pre-propeptides are are targeted with a signal plexus that sends them where in the cell?

ER and Golgi

117

can neuropeptides travel to affect distant neurons?

YES

118

Are neuropeptides slow or fast? Short or long lasting?

SLOOOOOOWW AND LOOOOONG

119

Do endocannibinoids have brain pain control?

NO NO NO NO

120

What is considered a retrograde messenger?

NO