Human Development, Diversity, and Behavior in Environment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Human Development, Diversity, and Behavior in Environment Deck (63):

closed system (systems theory)

uses up its energy and dies


differentiation (systems theory)

becoming specialized in structure and function


entropy (systems theory)

closed, disorganized, stagnant; using up available energy


equifinality (systems theory)

arriving at the same end from different beginnings


homeostasis (systems theory)

steady state


input (systems theory)

obtaining resources from the environment that are necessary to attain the goals of the system


negative entropy (systems theory)

exchange of energy and resources between systems that promote growth and transformation


open system (systems theory)

a system with cross-boundary exchange


output (systems theory)

a product of the system that exports to the environment


subsystem (systems theory)

a major component of a system made up of two or more interdependent components that interact in order to attain their own purpose(s) and the purpose(s) of the system in which they are embedded


suprasystem (systems theory)

an entity that is served by a number of component systems organized in interacting relationship



energy that is integrated into the system so it can be used by the system to accomplish goals



energy that is integrated into the system so it can be used by the system to accomplish goals


family theory - closed versus open boundaries

closed: tight restrictions on where family members can go and who may be brought into the system; rules regulate what information may be discussed and with whom

open: members and others are allowed to freely come and go without much restriction; info flows freely


family theory - interdependence

individuals family members and subsystems are mutually influenced and are mutually dependent upon each other (i.e. what happens to one family member, or what one family member does, influences others)


family therapy approaches - Bowenian family therapy (8 concepts)

differentiation - if more, family member can be individual while in emotional contact with family. ct can think through situation without being drawn to act by internal/external emotional pressure

emotional fusion - counterpart of differentiation, tendency of family members to share emotional response. because of diffuse interpersonal boundaries. little room for emotional autonomy (moves towards autonomy seen as abandonment by others)

multigenerational transmission - connection of current generation to past generations, natural. gives present a context in history

emotional triangle - network of relationships among 3 people. a relationship stable until anxiety introduced in dyad, then third party recruited into triangle to reduce overall anxiety

nuclear family - basic unit of family relationship. tend to form relationships with others outside of family unit with similar level of differentiation

family projection process

sibling position - factor in determining personality, influence on how individual relates to parents, siblings; determines triangles

societal regression - Bowen viewed society as a family system, problems such as depletion of natural resource (leading to societal anxiety)


family therapy approaches - structural family therapy

social worker "joins" family in effort to restructure it

interpersonal boundaries - define individual family members and promote differentiation and autonomous, yet interdependent functioning. *rigid enmeshment* *disengagement*

boundaries with the outside world - define family unit, must be permeable enough to maintain well-functioning open system, allowing contact and reciprocal exchanges with social world

hierarchical organization - in families of all cultures, maintained by generational boundaries, rules of differentiating parent/child roles, rights, obligations


group development stages

preaffiliation - forming (development of trust)

power and control - storming (struggles for individual autonomy and group identification)

intimacy - norming (utilize self in service of group)

differentiation - performing (acceptance of each other as distinct individuals)

separation/termination - adjourning (independence)


factors affecting group cohesion (x5)

group size
group homogeneity
participation in goal and norm setting for group
interdependence - depend on one another for achievement and goals
member stability (frequent change --> lack of cohesion)


causes of groupthink (8)

1. illusion of vulnerability - creates excessive optimism that encourages extreme risk-taking

2. collective rationalization - members discount warnings and do not reconsider assumptions

3. belief in inherent morality - members believe in rightness of their cause, ignore ethical/moral consequences of decisions

4. stereotyped views of those "on the out" - negative views of "enemy"

5. direct pressure on dissenters - members put under pressure not to express arguments against group's views

6. self-censorship - doubts and deviations from perceived consensus are not expressed

7. illusion of unanimity - majority view and judgments assumed to be unanimous

8. self-appointed "mindguards" - members protect group and leader from contradictory information


group polarization

discussion strengthens dominant p.o.v., shift to more extreme view than any individual member would adopt alone


trust versus mistrust (Erikson)

birth - 1 yr

learn to trust based on consistency of caregiver

successful - child gains confidence, security (even when threatened)

unsuccessful - inability to trust, sense of fear about inconsistent world, anxiety, heightened insecurity


autonomy versus shame/doubt (Erikson)

1 yr - 3 yrs

children assert independence, walk away from mother, pick toys, make choices (what they like to wear, eat)

successful - encouraged/supported in increased independence --> become confidence/secure in ability to survive

unsuccessful - criticized, overly controlled, not given opportunity to assert themselves --> feel inadequate in ability to survive, may become overly dependent upon others, lack self-esteem, feelings of shame/doubt in abilities


initiative versus guilt (Erikson)

3yrs - 6yrs

children assert themselves more frequently, plan and initiate activities, make up games

successful - develop sense of initiative, feel secure in abilities to lead others, make decisions

unsuccessful - criticism/control --> develop sense of guilt, feel like nuisances, will remain followers, lack self-initiative


industry versus inferiority (Erikson)

6yrs - puberty

develop pride in accomplishments, initiate projects & follow through to completion

successful - encouraged in initiative --> begin to feel industrious, confident in ability to achieve goals

unsuccessful - initiative restricted --> begin to feel inferior, doubting abilities, failing to reach potential


identity versus role confusion (Erikson)


children becoming more independent, begin to look @ future in terms of career, relationships, housing, families, etc.

successful - explore possibilities, begin to form identity based on outcome of exploration

unsuccessful - hindered sense of who they are, confusion about themselves and role in the world


intimacy versus isolation (Erikson)

young adulthood

share selves intimately with others, explore relationships leading towards long-term commitment with others outside family

successful - comfortable relationships with sense of commitment, safety, care

unsuccessful - avoiding intimacy/fear of commitment --> isolation, loneliness, even depression


generativity versus stagnation (Erikson)

middle adulthood

establish careers, settle down with relationships, begin families, develop sense of being part of bigger picture


ego integrity versus despair (Erikson)

older adults, seniors


Mahler - normal autism

0-1 month

infant detached, self-absorbed, spends time sleeping

*Mahler later abandoned this phase


Mahler - normal symbiotic

1-5 months

child aware of mother, doesn't have sense of individuality

mother and infant one, barrier between them and rest of world


Mahler - separation/individuation


5-9 months

infant no longer ignorant of differentiation between self and mother

increased alertness and interest for outside world

mother as point of orientation


9-15 months

infant begins to crawl, walk freely

explore actively, becomes more distant from mother


Mahler - rapprochement

15-24 months

infant again becomes close to mother - realizes that physical mobility demonstrates psychic separateness & may become tentative, keep mother in
sight while exploring

risk that mother will respond with impatience or unavailability - can lead to anxious fear of abandonment by toddler


Mahler - object constancy

24-38 months

child understands mother has separate identity

mental image of mother provides comfort/support unconsciously

deficiencies in positive internalization --> insecurity, poor self-esteem, issues in adulthood


respondent behavior

involuntary bx (anxiety) that is automatically elicited by certain behavior

stimulus elicits response


operant behavior

voluntary bx (walking, talking) that is controlled by its consequences in the environment


best known applications of bx modification

sexual dysfunction
phobic disorders
compulsive behaviors (overeating, smoking)
training individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder or intellectual disabilities


Respondent or Classical Conditioning

pair previously neutral (conditioned) stimulus with unconditioned (involuntary) stimulus so that the conditioned eventually elicits response normally elicited by the unconditioned

unconditioned stimulus --> unconditioned response
unconditioned + conditioned stimulus --> unconditioned response
conditioned stimulus --> conditioned response


Operant Conditioning

enforcing consequences increase occurrence of bx; punishing consequences decrease bx

antecedent event --> response bx --> consequence


Operant Conditioning - positive reinforcement

^ probability that bx will occur - praising, given tokens, rewarding


Operant Conditioning - negative reinforcement

bx increases because negative (aversive) stimulus removed (eg. remove shock)


Operant Conditioning - positive punishment

presentation of undesirable stimulus following bx for purpose of decreasing, eliminating bx (eg. hitting, shocking)


Operant Conditioning - negative punishment

removal of desirable stimulus following bx for the purpose of decreasing,eliminating bx (eg. take away token, reward, dessert)


flooding (behavioral)

tx procedure, ct anxiety extinguished by prolonged real/imagined exposure to high-intensity feared stimuli


in vivo desensitization (behavioral)

move through anxiety hierarchy from least to most anxiety provoking situation - occurs in "real" setting


modeling (behavioral)

method in which model demonstrates bx to be acquired by ct


rational emotive therapy (RET) (behavioral)

cognitively oriented therapy - social worker seeks to change client's irrational beliefs by argument, persuasion, rational reevaluation, by teaching ct to counter self-defeating thinking with new, non-distressing self-statements


shaping (behavioral)

method to train new bx by prompting and reinforcing successive approximations of desired bx


systematic desensitization (behavioral)

anxiety inhibiting response cannot occur at same time as anxiety response, so pair anxiety-producing stimulus with relaxation-producing response. ct reaction (fear, dread) is overcome by pleasant feelings as new bx reinforced by reward (compliment, gift, relaxation)


time out (behavioral)

removal of something desirable (negative punishment technique)


token economy (behavioral)

ct receives tokens as reinforcement for performing specific bx. tokens function as currency within environment, can be exchanged for goods, services, privileges


sensorimotor (Piaget)

0-2 yrs

- retains image of objects
- develops primitive logic in manipulating objects
- begins intentional actions
- play is imitative
- signals meaning - infant invests meaning in event
- symbol meaning (language) begins in last part of stage


preoperational (Piaget)

2-7 yrs

- progress from concrete to abstract thinking
- comprehends past, present, future
- night terrors
- acquires words, symbols
- magical thinking
- thinking NOT generalized
- can NOT see other point of view
- thinking centered on one detail or event

*IMAGINARY FRIENDS - emerge in this stage, most know not real and only pretend that they are. SOCIAL WORKER SHOULD NORMALIZE


concrete operations (Piaget)

7-11 yrs

- beginnings of abstract thought
- plays games with rules
- cause and effect relationship understood
- logical implications are understood
- thinking independent of experience
- thinking reversible
- rules of logic developed


formal operations (Piaget)

11 through maturity

- higher level of abstraction
- planning for the future
- thinks hypothetically
- assumes adult roles, responsibilities


Piaget (general)

cognitive development, process of acquisition of knowledge

children learn through interaction with environment and others

moral development (further developed by Kohlberg)


6 stages of moral reasoning (Kohlberg)

preconventional - elementary school age (before 9yrs)
(1) - child obeys authority, fear of punishment
(2) - child acts acceptably because in best interests

conventional - early adolescence
(3) - person acts to gain approval from others (good boy, good girl orientation)
(4) person obeys laws and fulfills obligations, duties to maintain social system, RULES, avoids censure, guilt

postconventional - adult
(5) - genuine interest in welfare of others, concerned with individual rights
(6) - guided by individual principles based on broad, universal ethical principles


types of power

coercive - from control of punishment
reward - from control of rewards
expert - from superior ability or knowledge
referent - from having charisma or identification with others who have power
legitimate - from having legitimate authority
informational - from having info


family life cycle

1. family of origin experiences
2. leaving home
3. premarriage stage
4. childless couple stage
5. family with young children
6. family with adolescents
7. launching children
8. later family life


Maslow's hierarchy of needs

self-actualization (growth need)
esteem (deficiency needs)
social - love and belonging (deficiency needs)
safety (deficiency needs)
physiological (deficiency needs)


racial identity development stages




internalization and commitment


social exchange theory

total potential benefits and losses to determine behavior


stages of grief

denial (and isolation) - "this can't be happening to me"

anger - "why me," blame