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Flashcards in Direct and Indirect Practice Deck (37):

Advocacy by social workers

Can occur on micro/macro levels
With or on behalf of individual or group
(1) obtain services or resources that would not otherwise be provided
(2) modify or influence policies or practices that adversely affect groups or communities
(3) promote legislation or policies that result in provision of resources/services


Primary mission of social work (code of ethics)

"enhance human well-being and help meet the basic human needs of all people, with particular attention to the needs and empowerment of people who are vulnerable, oppressed, living in poverty"


6 steps of problem-solving process

1. Engaging
2. Assessing
3. Planning
4. Intervening
5. Evaluating
6. Terminating


Goals of crisis intervention

1. relieve impact of stress with emotional/social resources
2. regain equilibrium - return client to previous level of functioning
3. help strengthen coping mechanisms during the crisis period
4. develop adaptive coping strategies
* focuses on here and now, is directive, requires activity and involvement
*setting specific goals
*should be brief - typically 4-6 weeks


Short-term interventions

Could be psychodynamic, crisis intervention, or cognitive-behavioral models


Conflict resolution - management entails...

1. Recognition of existing or potential conflict
2. Assessment of conflict situation
3. Selection of appropriate strategy
4. Intervention


Conflict resolution - techniques for structuring interaction

1. Decreasing amount of contact between parties in early stages
2. Decreasing amount of time between problem-solving sessions
3. Decreasing formality of problem-solving sessions
4. Limiting scope of issues discussed
5. Using third-party mediator


Case management activities (5)

1. Assessment
2. Planning
3. Linking
4. Monitoring
5. Advocacy


Change strategies

- MODIFY SYSTEMS - can change occur in larger system?
- MODIFY INDIVIDUAL THOUGHTS - teach problem-solving, alter self-concepts (notice and/or interpret defeating thoughts). feedback from others
- MODIFY INDIVIDUAL INTERACTIONS - behavior. modeling and role-modeling effective, should be used whenever possible
- ADVOCATE - change in social system
- MEDIATE - helping client & another (individual or system) negotiate to attain respective goals


Phases of intervention

Step 1: Engagement with ct, group, community
Step 2: Assessment of strengths/needs
Step 3: Planning/designing intervention to address problem
Step 4: Intervention aimed at making change
Step 5: Evaluation of efforts
Step 6: Termination and anticipation of future needs

(p. 185)


Stages of change (6)

PRECONTEMPLATION - denial, ignorance of problem

CONTEMPLATION - Ambivalence, conflicted emotion

PREPARATION - Experimenting with small changes, collecting information about change

ACTION - Taking direct action toward achieving a goal

MAINTENANCE - Maintaining new behavior, avoiding temptation

RELAPSE - Feelings of frustration, failure


Techniques of role play

Teaching strategy
Emphasizes personal concerns, problems, behavior, active participation
Improves interpersonal skills, communication skills

1. Preparation and explanation of activity
2. Preparation of the activity
3. Role-playing
4. Discussion/debriefing after role play activity


Types of role-modeling techniques

Live modeling - watching real person perform desired bx

Symbolic modeling - filmed/videotaped models demonstrating desired bx (also, self-modeling, cts themselves filmed performing bx)

Participant modeling - individual models anxiety-evoking bx for client then prompts client to engage in that bx

Covert modeling - use imagination, visualizing bx


Six levels of cognition
(Methods used to develop learning objectives)

1. Knowledge - rote memorization, recognition, recall of facts
2. Comprehension - understanding of what facts mean
3. Application - correct use of facts, rules, ideas
4. Analysis - breaking down info into parts
5. Synthesis - combination of facts, ideas, info to make new whole
6. Evaluation - judging/forming opinion about info/situation

*should be objectives at each level


3 domains of development
(Methods used to develop learning objectives)

1. Cognitive - mental skills (knowledge)
2. Affective - growth in feelings, emotional areas (attitude or self)
3. Psychomotor - manual or physical skills (skills)


Couples treatment techniques

- behavior modification
- insight-oriented psychotherapy
- Gottman method - focus on conflictual verbal communication; remove barriers creating stagnancy; create heightened empathy/understanding


Types of groups

Open versus closed
- Open - new members can join at any time
- Closed - all members start at the same time

Short term versus long-term


Phases of group x3, shifting social worker role

Beginning - ID purpose of group, role. Time to convene, organize, set plan. Members distant/removed until form relationships.
Middle - Most of the work happens here. Relationships strengthened. Group leaders less involved (typically).
End - Review accomplishments, feelings associated with termination discussed.


Coordinated services

1. integration of services - services combined, provided simultaneously
2. wrap-around services - multiple providers/services may overlap, but not combined (like above)
3. case management, care coordination - linking client to needed services

*also, roundtables


Consultation (4 critical things)

1. Defining purpose of consultation
2. Specifying consultant role
3. Clarifying nature of problem
4. Outlining consultation process

Only as much information as needed. Cannot disclose identifying information or specifics without consent of ct.


Developing behavioral objectives, must be...

1. client-oriented, emphasis on what client needs to do for change to occur
2. clear and understandable, contain clearly stated verbs, describe definite action/bx
3. observable products and results
4. contain bx targeted for change, conditions when bx performed, criteria for determining when acceptable performance of bx occurs


Desirable facial expressions

Direct eye contact (if culturally appropriate), warmth/concern, variance


Desirable postures, gestures

Appropriate arm movements, attentive gestures



Can you get the same answer repeatedly? (dependability, stability, consistency, predictability)



accuracy - is what we think we're measuring actually being measured?


External validity

Can the results be generalized


Internal validity

Is there confidence in cause and effect


ethnocentrism (cultural competence)

orientation that holds one's own culture, ethnic or racial group as superior to others


stratification (cultural competence)

structured inequality of entire categories of people who have unequal access to social rewards (ethnic stratification, social stratification)


pluralism (cultural competence)

society in which diverse members maintain their own traditions while cooperatively working together and seeing others' traits as valuable (cultural pluralism)


scientific management theory

(organizational theories)

- finding "best way" to perform each task
- carefully matching each worker to each task
- closely supervising workers, using reward/punishment motivators
- managing/controlling behavior


administrative theory

(organizational theories)

- establishing universal set of management principles that could be applied to all organizations


Weber's bureaucratic theory

(organizational theories)

- need for hierarchical structure of power to ensure stability and uniformity


human relations theory

(organizational theories)

- evolved as reaction to classical theories' authoritarian structure
- genuine concern for human needs in order to produce creativity
- emphasizes cohesive work groups, participatory leadership, open communication


systems approach

(organizational theories)

organization = system of interrelated, mutually dependent subsystems

components, linking processes and goals


sociotechnical approach

(organizational theories)

organization = social system + technical system + environment

interact with each other; need to balance them for effective functioning


contingency or situational approach

(organizational theories)

organizational systems are interrelated with environment

different environments require different organizational systems for effectiveness