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what methods can be used to assess human evolution?

-specific genes
-molecular groups
-interactions with other species


archaeology. example?

otzi iceman found in the alps. isotope composition of tooth enamel shows where he grew up


anthropology. example?

brain size of hominids informs number of social interactions and problem solving


specific genes. example?

olfactory receptors human vs chimp
humans have more pseudogenes and fewer actually active genes


linguistics. example?

diversification of language clades (comparative studies)


molecular group. example?

markers such as blood groups


interactions with other species. example?

bacteria can be used as a marker of migrations


what did the study of the 3 neanderthal female bones how?

compared their genomes to present humans.
europeans and asians share dna where as africans dont
so hybridisation happened when humans and neanderthals were together


what did the study of denisovans bone show?

genome similar to us so apparent hybridisation
also their population was small because from the bone there was little genetic variation and had homozygosity at loci


what is the y chromosome type associated with?

with the geographic location


what is equal female and male norse contributions to the gene pools of shetland and orkney consistent with?

vikings migrating in family groups