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what is the evidence for evo?

-shared features
-classification (phylogeny)
-fossil record
-geographical distributions
-geological history (time scale)
-direct observation


what did peter and rosemary's study include?

their study in the 1970s was on galapagos finches.
-major drought
-only large seeds persisted
- only large beak birds survived
- increase in beak length in the population
-as normal seeds came back beaks decreased in size


What generally did the greek philosophers observe?

-nature ruled by laws
-body parts theory (primitive selection)
-Expanse of time (fossils in rocks that had been previously under water)


(Greek philosophers) What did Aristotle contribute?

-hypothesis testing
-great chain of being: a graduation in nature. But no change of species


Al- Jahiz?

-food chains (interconnectedness)
-survival of the fittest


Linnaeus (Swedish 1707-1778) contribution? and implications there of?

-Classification system (taxonomy)
-Binominal nomenclature

-showing hybridisation
-idea of change
-hierarchical discontinuity


Leclerc ( French 1707-1788) contributions?

-profound influence on the next generation of french philosophers
-Species exhibit change
-questioned human and ape relatedness
-earth much older than 6000 years


Lamarck (French 1744-1829) contributions?

-evolutionary mechanism of lamarckism
-increasing complexity over time but along same phyletic line
-acquired characteristics inherited by offspring (giraffe necks)


Hilaire (French 1772-1844) contributions?

-unity of composition theory: structural plan basic to all animals
-comparative anatomy
-homology (shared ancestry between a pair of structures)


Cuvier (French 1769-1832) contributions? get anything wrong?

-paleontology: proved extinctions through fossils
-correlation of parts: relationships/ phylogenetics

-catastrophism instead of gradual change


Charles Lyell (British 1797-1875) contributions?

-geologist popularised James Huttons concept of uniformitarianism: constant gradual changes over time
-influenced Darwin: earth millions of years old


Robert Malthus (british 1766-1834) contributions?

-essay on the principles of population: human population increases exponentially whereas, food supply only increases geometrically
-therefore, competition/ survival of the fittest: lots of individuals die: natural selection


who did Darwin present the ideas of natural selection with? and why is darwin more known for it?

-Alfred Russel Wallace
-darwin wrote origins of species + contributed more to the field after