Human Factors In The Winery That Influence Style, Quality And Price Flashcards Preview

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Roles of oxygen?

Oxidation in chemical reactions
Oxygen in winemaking: to make wine dominated by primary fruit characteristics, add antioxidants like SO2; minimise oxygen contact; protective or anaerobic winemaking: grape juice away from o2, airtight winery equipments or filling up with co2 or nitrogen.
Oxygen in maturation
Wines are matured aerobically in oak vessels. Oxygen soften tannins; give more complexity to flavours
Making fortified wines with deliberately oxidative style: oloroso sherry, tawny port and Rutherglen Muscat


Roles of Sulfur dioxide?

Antioxidant effects

Antiseptic effects


2 types of inert winery vessels?

Stainless steel



What is alcoholic fermentation?

Yeast converts sugar into alcohol, carbon dioxide, flavour compounds and heat.


What is Malolactic Fermentation?

Lactic acid bacteria converts tart malic acids into softer lactic acids after Alcoholic Fermentation as well as creating buttery flavours and producing CO2


What is must enrichment?

Depending on the sugar level in grape juice (or must weight), the must enrichment may be carried out.
This process involves increasing sugar levels in juice by adding rectified concentrated grape must either before or during Fermentation.


What is Chaptalisation?

Where sugar from sources other than grapes is added, for example sugar beet, this process is called chaptalisation.


What is acidification?

In warm regions, if during ripening, grape acid has fallen too far, acidification is normally carried out by the addition of tartaric acid in powder form.


What is deacidification?

In cool regions, the grape acid levels have not fallen sufficiently during grape ripening, excess acid may be neutralised by the addition of an alkali.


White winemaking- list at least 2 aromatic grape varieties?

Sauvignon Blanc




White winemaking- list 2 less aromatic grape varieties?


Pinot Gris/Grigio


What do people do at grape reception?

First dose of so2

Individually checked on a sorting table to eliminate I ripe or rotten grapes if making premium wines


What is destemming?

The bunches of harvest grapes are destemming by a destemmer along with crushing before pumping into fermenters.


What is crushing?

Crushing breaks the skins of the grapes and liberates a quantity of juice.


What is skin contact?

Most of the time juice spends little time in contact with the skin to reduce the risk of oxidation. For example whole bunch press.

For certain aromatic varieties, winemakers choose to keep the juice in contact with the skins to increase flavour intensity and texture at cool temp to inhibit Fermentation only a few hours


What is pressing?

Pressing separates the liquid and the solid constituents of the grape.
White wine pressing occurs before the start of Fermentation
Red wines happen after Fermentation.


List 3 methods of clarification?



Filtration (depth and surface)


What is racking off gross lees/sedimentation?

Once the gross lees have settled in a deposit, the wine can then be slowly and gently pumped into a different vessel leaving the sediment behind, a process known as racking


Red winemaking- list at least 5 international red varieties

Cabernet Sauvignon
Pinot Noir


What styles of wine can Syrah be made?

Med bodied with pepper and fresh black fruit aromas to smooth and full bodied with intense, very ripe black fruit flavours and hints of liquorice


In Languedoc and Roussillon in France, what other 4 varieties are used to blend with Syrah?



How to make restrained, elegant Shiraz wine in warm or hot climate?

Early harvesting (low alcohol)/
Gentler cap management /
May include a proportion of whole bunches in the Fermentation/
A fine tannin structure may be achieved by extended post-Fermentation maceration to extract and smooth tannins


Classic Cabernet Sauvignon regions:

Napa Valley in California
Coonawarra and Margaret River in Australia
Hawke’s Bay in NZ
Stellenbosch in South Africa
Colchagua Valley in Chile


What is the Fermentation temperature range of cab Sauvignon?

26-30 degrees

Warm enough for sufficient extractions

Cool enough to promote fresh fruit flavours


As cab Sauvignon have high levels of tannins, which two techniques need to be avoided during fermentation?

High temperature
Extractive cap management

especially if tannins are not fully ripe.
A period of post-Fermentation maceration may be used to encourage a more gentle extraction of tannin and to soften existing tannins.


What 2 common varieties are used to blend with cab Sauvignon?

Merlot and Shiraz

To provide a certain softness and fruit to complement cab’s lean structure


Which variety is dominant in Saint-Émilion and Pomerol?



Best quality Merlots tend to make into 2 styles of wines, and what are these styles?

1) international style: grapes are harvested as late as possible to generate the max intense purple colour, concentrated blackberry and plum fruit, soft, velvet-textured tannins, often matured in oak to add toasty flavours. Usually found in new world countries, the south of France, some Bordeaux estates
2) harvest early to make med body and alcohol, higher acidity, more fresh red fruit character, as well as vegetal, leafy aromas. This approach is rarely found outside of Bordeaux


The characters of Pinot Noir grapes?

Early budding & ripening
A thin skin


What styles of wines Pinot Noir can be made?

Light and fruity with red cherry notes
To complex and earthy with flavours of spice and forest floor