Flashcards in Human Movement Science Deck (42):
a position above a reference point
ex) The pectorals major is superior to the rectus abdominis
a position below a reference point
ex) The calcaneus is inferior to the patella.
a position nearest to the center of the body or point of reference
ex) The pectorals major is more proximal to the deltoid.
a position away from the center of the body or point of reference
ex) The ankle is more distal from the hip than the knee
a position on or towards the front of the body
ex) The quadriceps are located on the anterior aspect of the thigh
a position on or towards the back of the body
ex) the hamstring complex is located on the posterior aspect of the thigh
a position relatively closer to the midline of the body
Ex) The adductors are more medial than the abductors
a position relatively farther away from the midline or toward the outside of the body
Ex) The ears are on the lateral sides of the head
a position on the opposite side of the body
Ex) The right arm is contralateral to the left arm
a position on the same side of the body
Ex) The heart is ipsilateral to the left hip.
Where does movement in a plane occur?
More commonly along the plane or parallel to it
Sagittal plane divides body into...
right and left sides
Movement along the sagittal plane includes;
flexion and extension around the coronal axis
Frontal plane divides body into..
front and back
Movement along the frontal plane includes:
adduction/abduction, lateral flexion, eversion/inversion around the anterior-posterior axis
Transverse plane divides body into..
upper and lower halves, around the longitudinal axis
Movement along the transverse plane includes:
Internal rotation, external rotation, left/right rotation, horizontal adduction, horizontal abduction
Definition of flexion
a bending movement that decreases the angle between two adjacent segments
Ex) Knee flexion = bending the knee with foot coming up behind you.
Ex) Hip flexion-pelvic on femoral rotation = good morning exercise
Define scapular retraction
shoulder blades come together - adduction
Ex) seated back row
Define scapular protraction
shoulder blades move away from each other - abduction
Ex) Releasing weight back down from seated back row
Define scapular depression
shoulder blades move downwards
Ex) Standing up with good posture, shoulders down and back
Define scapular elevation
shoulder blades move upwards
Ex) Shrugging shoulders
What are the types of muscle action?
Isotonic (Eccentric, Concentric), Isometric, and Isokinetic
What classifies as an isotonic muscle contraction?
Constant muscle tension
Describe an eccentric isotonic muscle action - "a negative"
The muscle is lengthening and develops tension
Ex) Landing from a jump
Describe a concentric muscle action
When the contractile force is greater than the resistive force, muscle shortens, joint movement
Describe an isometric muscle action
When there is no change in the muscle length, pausing between lifting and lowering weight back down
Ex) top of a biceps curl
Describe an isokinetic muscle action
The muscle is shortening at a constant speed
Ex) A slow and controlled biceps curl
What is the Length-Tension Relationship?
The length of a muscle at rest and the amount of tension it can produce at this length (p.94)
What is the Force-Velocity Curve?
A muscles ability to produce tension at differing shortening velocities (p.95)
What is a force-couple?
Muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint
Give an example of a force-couple and the movement created
Gluteus Maximus + Quadriceps + Calf Muscles = Hip & knee extension when walking up stairs
Define a 1st class lever
effort -- fulcrum -- resistance
Ex) Nodding the head, top of the spinal column as the fulcrum
Define a 2nd class lever
fulcrum -- resistance -- effort
Ex) A calf-raise... ball of foot is fulcrum, body weight is resistance, effort is by the calf muscle
Define a 3rd class lever
Fulcrum -- effort -- resistance
Ex) In the forearm - elbow is fulcrum, biceps are supplying effort, hand is resistance
A force that produces rotation
How would you modify the torque in a lateral dumbbell raise (shoulder abduction)?
Easier = elbow bent
Harder = elbow slightly bent
Define muscle synergies
groups of muscles recruited by the CNS to provide movement
cumulative sensory input to the CNS from all mechanoreceptors that sense position and limb movements
Forms of external feedback
1) Knowledge of Results
2) Knowledge of Performance
Describe the external feedback method of "knowledge of results"
Inform client of the outcome of their performance AFTER the exercise.
"Your squats look great. Did you notice anything about your form?"